Forschungsbericht1999-2001 Auswirkungen von Vegetationsbränden auf Atmosphäre, Klima, Ökosysteme undGesellschaft des Max-Planck-Instituts für Chemie
Zusammengestelltvon der Arbeitsgruppe Feuerökologie
1999-2001Research Report on “Impacts of Burning of Vegetation on Atmosphere,Climate, Ecosystems and Society” of the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry by the Fire Ecology Research Group / Global Fire Monitoring Center (GFMC)
Impactsof Burning of Vegetation on Atmosphere, Climate, Ecosystems and Society
1.1 Atmospheric impacts*
TheBiogeochemistry Department, in collaboration with the Department of AtmosphericChemistry, and numerous other German and foreign institutions has beeninvestigating the emissions from vegetation fires and their impact onatmospheric chemistry and climate. Emission characterization studies were madein the laboratory and in the field. These serve as inputs to models of plumedynamics and chemical evolution. Field measurements in the tropics were madewith the specific objective to study the impact of biomass burning, butpronounced atmospheric perturbations from biomass smoke were found during manycampaigns were they had not been expected, e.g., in Siberia and in the uppertroposphere over the North Atlantic and the Mediterranean.
Emissionmeasurements In December 2000-January 2001 a series of biomass burning experiments were runas part of the SAFARI 2000 project at MPIC. The project was conceived and leadby J. Lobert, P. Crutzen and W. Keene. Samples of representative biogenicmaterial were gathered in the field, and then burnt under controlled conditions.The GC-MS system has been used to quantitatively analyse several organic halides(in particular methyl chlorides, bromides and iodides) emitted from biomassburning as well as qualitatively to determine the identity of other organicemissions. The PTR-MS was used to monitor at high measurement various VOCemitted from burning such as acetonitrile, acetone, benzene and toluene whichare predominantly emitted during the smouldering phase. Work is currently inprogress on the analysis of the data.
Duringa range of fire experiments and wildfires of opportunity emission samples weretaken in a range of ecosystems worldwide to determine the typical emissionratios of methyl bromide (CH3Br) and methyl chloride (CH3Cl).In continuation of the long-term data collection and analysis program thatstarted in 1993 measurements were conducted in grassland/shrubland fuels of SWGermany (2000), boreal pine forests of Canada (2000) and temperate pine forestsin Germany (2001).
Theassessment of the importance of emissions from domestic biofuel use has been animportant focus of biomass burning research in the Biogeochemistry Department.Plant bio-mass provides about 14% of the world’s demand of primary energy. Halfof the global population covers an average of 35 percent of its energy needs bydomestic biomass burning. In Africa, the biomass contribution alone to the totalenergy use typically ranges from 80-90% in poor, 55-65% in middle and 30-40% inhigh income groups. Unlike the occurrence of free-burning vegetation fires whichis usually restricted to several months during the dry season, domestic biofuelcombustion takes place during the whole year. To assess emissions from thesefire practices, patterns and consumption of biofuels have been studied.Emissions of CO2, CO, NO and occasionally organic compounds andaerosols were measured in house-holds of rural and urban Zimbabwe, Nigeria andKenya. In accordance with a questionnaire survey in Kenya, fuelwood was the mainbiofuel used with average consumption rates by rural households in the range0.8-2.7 kg per day and person. Charcoal was mostly consumed by urban householdsat weighted average rates in the range of 0.18-0.69 kg per day and person.Together with population statistics and the emission figures, we thus were ableto assess the CO2, CO and NO emissions from domestic combustionprocesses (Kituyi, Marufu, Wandiga et al., 2001a,b; Kituyi, Marufu, Huber etal., 2001). A tentative globalanalysis shows that the carbon source strength of domestic biomass burning is onthe order of 1500 Tg a-1, 140 Tg a-1 referred to CO2and CO emissions, respectively, and the normalized nitrogen source strength is2.5 Tg a-1 referred to NO emissions. This represents contributions ofabout 7 to 20% to the global budgets of these gases (Ludwig et al., 2001).
Considerableprogress has been made in the last decade with regard to the determination ofemissions from burning of plant biomass. Presently available global data werecritically evaluated and integrated into a consistent format (Andreae, Merlet,submitted). The summary ofcharacteristics of pyrogenic emissions revealed that a large number of chemicalspecies have been identified in the smoke of vegetation fires. The globalemission estimates, which were updated in the paper, have been refined butrequire further validation. This applies particularly to the estimates ofbiomass burned as a function of space, time and type of combustion.
Smokeplume modelling The goal of this project is the simulation of the photochemical processes in ayoung biomass burning plume. For this purpose, the 3-dimensional active tracerhigh-resolution atmospheric model (ATHAM) was used and extended by a chemicalmechanism to describe the oxidation of the emitted hydrocarbons. For theevaluation of the model, simulations were done to represent the situation of aprescribed fire performed as part of the SCAR-C experiment. The modelsimulations successfully reproduce the physical behaviour of the plume as wellas the observed low ozone concentrations in the plume close to the fire and thedown-wind increase of the ozone mixing ratio up to a value of 70 ppb.Photochemical ozone production in the plume is limited by the availability ofradicals, which are mainly produced from the photolysis of formaldehyde.Omitting the primary emissions of formaldehyde from the fire leads to asignificant underestimation of the ozone concentration. Future studies willinvestigate the photochemistry in young biomass burning plumes under differentmeteorological and fire conditions representative for different ecosystems.
Effectson atmospheric chemistry During four campaigns in Amazonia (CLAIRE-98, two EUSTACH-99 campaigns, andCLAIRE-2001) the impact of pyrogenic emission on the tropical atmosphere wasinvestigated. During CLAIRE-98, we succeeded for the first time to document theinjection of biomass smoke through the ITCZ into the tropical upper troposphere,and the chemical processing of the smoke during deep convection. DuringEUSTACH-99, we made the first measurements of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) inthe moist tropics during the dry season. During the wet season, CCNconcentrations were much lower than what had been expected previously. We showedthat the fires increased the aerosol and CCN load by a factor of about 20, withdramatic consequences for cloud microphysics. We were also able to make adetailed chemical characterization of the water soluble components of pyrogenicaerosol, and attribute its CCN activity to both organic and inorganiccomponents.
Themost prominent VOCs present in air over the last part of the wet season wereisoprene, formaldehyde, and formic acid, with mixing ratios of each ranging upto several parts per billion (ppb). Methyl vinyl ketone as well as methacrolein,both oxidation products of isoprene, ranged around 1 ppb. The sum of themeasured monoterpene concentrations was below 1 ppb. At the end of the dryseason the amount of C1-C2 organic acids and C1-C2 aldehydes increasedsignificantly up to 17 and 25 ppb respectively, which is thought to result fromvegetation fire emissions. High methanol concentrations also support thisscenario. The uptake of oxygenated compounds, acids and aldehydes, by vegetationwas observed during both seasons, but increased significantly during the dryseason (Kesselmeier, Kuhn et al., submitted)
Emissionsfrom biomass burning were also found to make important contributions to airpollutant loadings in extratropical regions. Forest fires in Russia, coveringfor instance, annually an average area of 1.2 million ha for 1990-1999,affect the atmospheric budgets of CO, CO2, CH4, NOx,and other gases, and the global carbon cycle (Shvidenko,Goldammer, 2001). Particularly, the Russian Far East region differs fromother parts of Russia by frequent forest fires due to specific climatic andforest vegetation characteristics. While fire certainly results in significantemissions, the severity of the fire event will largely determine how quickly thesite will switch from a carbon source to a carbon sink. During the TROICA 5experiment in June-July 1999 the most pronounced enhancements of CO wereregistered due to peat fires in Central Russia and due to extensive forest firesin the Far East region. The peat burning plumes in the European part of Russiawere intercepted for ca. 150 km, with the highest CO mixing ratio observedduring this campaign – 2467 nmol/mol. The CO concentration increase reaching1071 nmol/mol on the 1500 km section of the Russian Far East was unique inextent reflecting severe wildfires. These fire events were also accompanied bythe increase of CH4 and NO concentrations. Back trajectory analysisconfirmed interception of fire plumes. Similarly to TROICA 2 (1996), highnight-time O3 values in eastern Siberia during TROICA 5 coincidedwith a tremendous CO concentration increase. Using 14CO measurementsBergamaschi et al. (1998) unambiguously showed that in summer 1996 bio-massburning caused an unusual increase in CO mixing ratios between Chita andKhabarovsk. This and back trajectories indicate that during TROICA 5 O3-richnocturnal events in the Russian Far East occurred most likely due to extensiveforest fires. Consistently pronounced O3 minima corresponded toevents when strong boundary-layer inversions were accompanied by stronglyincreased NO, CO, CO2 and CH4 concentrations from wildfireplumes, which resulted in O3 titration (Oberlander et al., 2001, seereport of Department of Atmospheric Chemistry).
Theupper troposphere and lowermost stratosphere have been investigated by a numberof airborne measurements in which the Department of Atmospheric Chemistryparticipated and the influence of vegetation fires was an area of interest. Inthe STREAM 98 campaign it was not possible to detect clear signatures of tracersof vegetation burning in the lower stratosphere region. In the uppertroposphere, however, sporadic biomass smoke plumes were detected (Lange et al.,2001; Lange et al., submitted). Inthe MINOS study measurements of ozone, radicals and precursor gases, including ahost of hydrocarbons and reaction inter-mediates, were conducted and confirmedthat pollutant levels are high throughout the Mediterranean, up to severalthousand kilometres downwind of sources. The sources include industrial activityin eastern Europe and biomass burning in southern Europe (see report ofDepartment of Atmospheric Chemistry).
1.2Climate: A multiyear global database of vegetation fires for use in climatemodelling Currentparameterisations of trace gas and aerosol emissions from vegetation fires inglobal atmospheric models are based on a purely statistical approach and provideno information on the long-term change of these emissions or on inter-annualvariability. Short-term variability can be induced by climatic oscillations.Long-term changes are induced by the location and extent of vegetation burningoriginating from migration, land-use change, population growth, and economicaldecisions. Changes in climate change may play a role, too, but they probablyhave a minor effect compared to the socio-economic factors. In recent years,more data have become available that allow a crude estimate of the variations inthe global distribution and extent of vegetation burning over the last decades.Jointly with the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology we will develop amultiyear global database of vegetation fires (project: “The impact ofexternal forcings on climate in a comprehensive climate model” (DEKLIM)).These data together with demographic and meteorological information form thefirst time-resolved global database of vegetation fires for use in globalclimate modelling. Estimates will be contained of long-term changes invegetation patterns and standing phytomass as well as of the amount of phytomassburnt in individual years. New algorithms and meteorological data will allow toderive emission fluxes for several trace gases and aerosols. The project startedin 2001-2002.
Impactof fires during the 1997-98 El Niño Southern Oscillation on tropical rain forest ecosystems In 1992 the Fire Ecology Research Group initiated a 9-years technical andscientific cooperation project on Integrated Forest Fire Management (IFFM)between Germany and Indonesia. In 1997/98 fires driven by an exceptional droughtassociated with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon devastatedlarge areas of tropical rain forests in the Province of East Kalimantan on theisland of Borneo, as well as in other parts of the country. Evidence suggeststhat selective logging might lead to an increased susceptibility of forests tofire. The IFFM team investigated whether this assumption holds for the case ofthe Indonesian fires which are qualified as the largest fire disaster everobserved. The team performed a multi-scale analysis using coarse and highresolution optical and radar satellite imagery, extensive ground and aerialsurveys to assess the extent of the fire damaged area and impacts on thevegetation. Furthermore, we compiled all available data on pre-fire land statusand land use. A total of 5.2 ±0.3million ha, including 2.6 million ha forest, was burned with varying degrees ofdamage. The fires strongly degraded the quality of remaining forests,particularly the Lowland Dipterocarpforests. Fires affected predominantly degraded vegetation and recently loggedover forests while primary or old logged over forests were less affected. Thefires significantly increased the risk of recurrent fire disasters in the futureby leaving millions of tons of dead, unburned biomass and altering fuel types(Siegert et al., 2001).
Impactof fires on boreal forests (Biogeochemistry Department: J.G. Goldammer) The “Bor Forest Island Fire Experiment” conducted in 1993 inKrasnoyarsk Region, Russian Federation, in the frame of the “Fire ResearchCampaign Asia-North” (FIRESCAN), was designed to observe the regenerationand forest dynamics (post-stand replacement fire regeneration) and carbon flux.The experiment will last 200 years (1993-2192). After 1994, 1995, 1996 theexperimental site has been revisited in 1999. Future investigations of the sitewill be in 2-5 year intervals.
Duringthe reporting period a number of investigations have been conducted on theimpacts of boreal fires on global processes, particularly on emissions of carbonaceousparticles (Lavoué et al., 2000),impact of climate change on boreal fire regimes (Stockset al. 2001) and management and policy implications (Goldammer, Stocks, 2000).
In2001 the Fire Ecology Research Group / GFMC built the Krasnoyarsk Fire Webserverat the Sukachev Institute of Forest of the Russian Academy of Sciences inKrasnoyarsk, Russian Federation. The Webserver will be activated in 2002 andwill serve as a regional fire information node to the GFMC. In cooperation withthe Canadian Forest Service the GFMC set up a pan-Eurasian Experimental FireWeather Information System for the Russian Federation, the Baltic Region andCentral Asia. The internet-based system is updated daily. Source: https://gfmc.online/fwf/eurasia.htm
Impactof fire on anthropogenic ecosystems of temperate Central Europe The majority of protected areas in Germany are not of pristine nature. Overcenturies landscapes have been shaped by land-use systems such as burning,grazing, mowing and cutting. Transformed natural landscapes are uniqueecosystems. They provide habitats for many plant and animal species, which areunder protection today, including many endangered (red list) species. The recentsocio-economic developments, however, resulted in structural changes of therural space. Many agricultural sites are treated less intensively or areabandoned because farming is no longer profitable. Without disturbance secondarysuccession leads to a tree- and shrub-dominated vegetation form which is thepotential natural vegetation type in most parts of central Europe. As a result,many plant and animal species adapted to human-made open ecosystems are facingthe threat of extinction. A four-year research project (1998-2001) investigatedthe use of prescribed burning for maintaining the traditional open vegetationstructure in SW Germany (Page et al., 2001).Socio-economic aspects of the use of fire in landscape and ecosystemmanipulation were covered in a sociological study (Weiher et al., 2000).A new research program has been initiated in 2001 to investigate the impact ofprescribed fire on heath ecosystems on Central Europe.
1.4Society and policies
GlobalForest Fire Assessment 1990-2000 (UN-FAO Forest Resources Assessment 2000) The global Forest Resources Assessment process 2000 provided an opportunity forthe Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) to define theglobal effects of fires on forests as a part of the forest assessment that isundertaken every ten years. The assessment summarizes the results ofquestionnaires and contacts with countries to obtain wildfire data and narrativeinformation regarding the fire situation. The Fire Ecology Research Group / GFMCwas entrusted to compile and write the analysis for four of the FAO’s sixgeographical regions (Africa, Asia, Europe, Oceania) (FAO 2001; see also list ofreferences with 13 individual papers).
Theunderlying causes of fire use and uncontrolled vegetation fires The human dimension of global fire application in land-use systems and land-usechange as well as causes of uncontrolled vegetation fires have been subject ofresearch since the early 1990s. Main emphasis has been laid on the underlyingcauses of human-made fires in order to understand the socio-economic, culturaland political reasons of fire application as well as the implications of fire onthe various sectors of society. In-depth investigations have been carried out inIndonesia (ongoing) and Mongolia (Ing 1999(a,b), 2000; Ing-Moody, 2001).Consequently participatory approaches in fire management (Integrated Forest FireManagement, Community-Based Fire Management) have been promoted. A number oflocal to national Round Tables on Fire Management have been organized by theFire Ecology Research Group (Namibia 1999, Ethiopia 2000, Guatemala and Albania2001) in order to activate and identify the role of the various stakeholders ofthe civil society in sustainable fire management. A major conference convened bythe German Art and Exhibition Hall in cooperation with the Fire Ecology ResearchGroup provided an interdisciplinary forum for anthropology, cultural history,humanities, environmental sciences and ecology and resulted in a comprehensivemonograph on global fire culture (Busch et al., 2001).
Fireemission and public health (Biogeochemistry Department Emissionsfrom biofuel burning and free-burning (open) vegetation fires have a strongimpact on human health, especially through inhalablesuspended particulate matter. Sources for indoor pollution from cookingfires have been investigated in Africa. Extreme pollution burdens duringextended fire and pyrogenic smog episodes have been investigated during the1997-98 El Niño in the SE Asianregion (Heil,Goldammer, 2001). As aconsequence of the extended smoke episodes in SE Asia and South America the FireEcology Research Group supported the World Health Organization (WHO) inpreparation of a state-ofthe-knowledge report on the impact of vegetationfire smoke on human health (Goh et al., 1999)and developed the “WHO HealthGuidelines for Vegetation Fire Events” (Schwela et al., 1999).
Internationalpolicies for disaster reduction (UN International Strategy for DisasterReduction) In October 2000 the first UN inter-agency platform for wildland fires has beencreated under the International Strategyfor Disaster Reduction (ISDR). The Working Group on Wildland Fire is coordinated by the Fire EcologyResearch Group / GFMC. The working group will support the overall mandate of theISDR-IATF by establishing an interagency and inter-sectoral forum on wildlandfire of UN and non-UN agencies and programs. Theworking group intends to meet the information needs of the global fire modellingcommunity. Inputs will be provided to the Conventions on Biological Diversity(CBD), Convention to Combat Desertification (CCD), the UN Framework Conventionon Climate Change (FCCC), the United Nations Forum on Forests (UNFF), the FAOGlobal Forest Resources Assessment and other ongoing international criteria andindicators processes. For details on the ISDR Working Group on Wildland Firesee: http://www.unisdr.org/unisdr/WGroup4.htm
1.5Technology transfer and development
TheGlobal Fire Monitoring Center GFMC Based on international recommendations the Government of Germany providedinitial funding in 1998 for the establishment of the Global Fire Monitoring Center (GFMC) which is located at the FireEcology Research Group of the Biogeochemistry Department (Freiburg). The GFMCfire documentation, information and monitoring system is accessible through theInternet. The daily to periodically updated national to global products of theGFMC are generated by numerous institutions worldwide. The GFMC supports theinternational community of decision makers and scientists by providing globalcoverage of (a) early warning of fire danger and near-real time monitoring ofwildland fires, (b) interpretation, synthesis and archive of wildland fire datathrough a global network of information providers, (c) support of governmentalor other projects of developing national fire management programmes, withemphasis on fire prevention and community-based (integrated) fire management,and (d) consultative support of international organizations. The GFMC isco-sponsored or has officially signed interface procedures with several UNagencies such as the United Nations Scientific and Cultural Organization(UNESCO), World Health Organization (WHO), the UN Office for the Coordination ofHumanitarian Affairs (UN-OCHA), the World Bank, the World Conservation Union(IUCN) and other institutions. Source: https://gfmc.online
Forestfire modelling for decision support (German Research Network for NaturalDisasters, Cluster A2 Forest Fire Research) The expected changes in socio-economic conditions, practices in forestmanagement, and may lead to higher fire occurrence and likelihood of increasedfire severity in Central Europe. This will require appropriate knowledge anddecision-support systems to handle larger forest fires in the future. Within theGerman Research Network for Natural Disasters (Deutsches Forschungsnetz Naturkatastrophen – DFNK) a Work Package /Cluster Early Warning, Monitoring, Information Management and Simulation ofForest Fire Danger is included. Under the lead of the Fire Ecology ResearchGroup and in close cooperation with various research groups throughout Germany,a GIS-based information system is currently developed (1999-2003) which willinclude early warning, monitoring, information management and simulation offorest fire danger (including long-term forecasts). This prototype system willbe implemented in the south-eastern part of the state of Brandenburg, Germany. Aset of four large experimental forest fires has been conducted in August 2001 inBrandenburg State. Preliminary results can be seen at: http://www.uni-freiburg.de/fireglobe/dfnk/zwischenbericht.htm
Dedicatedfire satellite BIRD, ISS payload FOCUS Advanced sensor technologies and operational systems of dedicated firesatellites are required to improve the spatio-temporal coverage and informationcontent for research and disaster management purposes (Ahern et al. 2001). Aprototype improved high temperature event (HTE) sensor, the Bi-spectral IRDetection (BIRD) small satellite mission has been developed by the GermanAerospace Center (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt – DLR) incooperation with the Fire Ecology Research Group / GFMC (Oertel et al., 2000).The Advanced BIRD Airborne Simulator (ABAS) was successfully tested over theBrandenburg Forest Fire Experiments in August 2001 (Oertel et al., in press).BIRD has been launched successfully on 22 October 2001 and is currently tested(December 2001 – February 2002). The development of the Innovative InfraredSensor System FOCUS, to be flown as an early external payload of theInternational Space Station (ISS) is another pending joint DLR-GFMC project.
* Contributorsto 1.1Atmosphericimpacts:M.O. Andreae, P. Artaxo, T. Biesenthal, C. Brenninkmeijer, P. Ciccioli, P.J.Crutzen, T. Dindorf, H. Fischer, P. Formenti, S.R. Freitas, J.G. Goldammer, J.M.Gregoire, P. Guyon, A. Hansel,G. Helas, P. Hoor, C. Jost, W. Keene, J. Kesselmeier, E. Kituyi, R. Kormann, R.Krejci, U. Kuhn, L. Lange, J. Lelieveld, W. Lindinger, J. Lobert, K. Longo, , L.Marufu, P. Merlet, E. Oberlander, W. Peters, M. de Reus, S. Rottenberger, G.Schebeske, B. Scheeren, M.A.F. Silva Dias, J. Ström, T. Tavares, J. Trentmann,R. Valentini, P.F.J. van Velthoven, J. Williams, A. Wolf
Ahern, F., J.G.Goldammer, and C. Justice(eds.). 2001. Global and regional vegetation fire monitoring from space:Planning a coordinated international effort. SPB Academic Publishing bv, TheHague, The Netherlands, 302 p.
Bergamaschi, P., C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, M.Hahn, T. Röckmann, D. H. Scharffe, P. J. Crutzen, N. F. Elansky, I. B. Belikov,N. B. A. Trivett, and D. E. J. Worthy. 1998. Isotope analysis based sourceidentification for atmospheric CH4 and CO sampled across Russia using theTrans‑Siberian railroad. J. Geophys. Res., 103 (D7), 8227-8235.
Busch,B. J. G. Goldammer und A. Denk (Wiss. Red.). 2001. Feuer. Schriftenreihe Forum,Bd. 10, Elemente des Naturhaushaltes II. Kunst- und Ausstellungshalle derBundesrepublik Deutschland (Hrsg.). Wienand, Köln, 608 S.
De Ronde, C., and J.G.Goldammer. 2001. Firesituation in South Africa. In: FRA Global Forest Fire Assessment 1990-2000.Forest Resources Assessment Programme, Working Paper 55, p. 76-83. FAO,Rome, 495 p.
FAO 2001. FRA Global Forest Fire Assessment1990-2000. Forest Resources Assessment Programme, Working Paper 55. FAO, Rome, 495 p.
Goh, K.T., D.H. Schwela, J.G. Goldammer, and O.Simpson. 1999.Health Guidelines for Vegetation Fire Events. Background Papers. Published onbehalf of UNEP, WHO, and WMO. Institute of Environmental Epidemiology, Ministryof the Environment, Singapore. Namic Printers, Singapore, 498 p.
Goldammer, J.G., and B.J. Stocks. 2000.Eurasian perspective of fire: Dimension, management, policies, and scientificrequirements. In: Fire, climate change, and carbon cycling in the boreal forest(E.S. Kasischke and B.J. Stocks, eds.), 49-65. Ecological Studies 138,Springer-Verlag, Berlin-Heidelberg-New York, 461 p.
Heil,A., and J.G. Goldammer. 2001. Smoke-haze pollution: a review of the 1997 episode in SoutheastAsia. Regional Environmental Change 2 (1), 24-37.
Ing, S. K. 1999a. The social conditionsof fire. A sociological study of the affects and effects of wildfire on theBatschireet and Mongonmort regions of Mongolia. Magisterarbeit(MS thesis), Philosophische Fakultäten, Universität Freiburg, inZusammenarbeit mit Arbeitsgruppe Feuerökologie, Max-Planck-Institut fürChemie.
Ing,S.K. 1999b. The social conditions of wildfire in Mongolia. International ForestFire News No. 21, 75-80.
Ing,S.K. 2000. Community-based wildfire management in Mongolia. International ForestFire News No. 23, 57-60.
Ing-Moody,S. 2001. Waldbrände inder Mongolei und ihre gesellschaftlichen Wurzeln.In: Feuer (B.J. Busch, J.G. Goldammer und A. Denk, Wiss. Red.), 345-353.Schriftenreihe Forum, Bd. 10, Elemente des Naturhaushaltes II. Kunst- undAusstellungshalle der Bundesrepublik Deutschland (Hrsg.). Wienand, Köln, 608 S.
Kituyi,E., L. Marufu, B. Huber, S.O. Wandiga, I.O. Jumba, M.O. Andreae, and G. Helas.2001a. Biofuel consumption rates and patterns in Kenya. Biomass and Bioenergy20, 83-99.
Kituyi,E., L. Marufu, S.O. Wandiga, I.O. Jumba, M.O. Andreae and G. Helas. 2001b.Biofuel availability and domestic use patterns in Kenya. Biomass and Bionergy20, 71-82.
Kituyi,E., L. Marufu, S.O. Wandiga, I.O. Jumba, M.O. Andreae and G. Helas. 2001. Carbonmonoxide and nitric oxide from biofuel fires in Kenya. Energy Conversion andManagement 42, 1517-1542.
Lange,L., P. Hoor, G. Helas, H. Fischer, D. Brunner, B. Scheeren, J. Williams, S.Wong, K.-H. Wohlfrom, F. Arnold, J. Ström, R. Krejci, J. Lelieveld, M.O.Andreae. 2001. Detection of lightning-produced NO in the midlatitude uppertroposphere during STREAM 98. Journal of Geophyisical Research 106, 27777-27786.
Lavoué, D., C.Liousse, H.Cachier,B.J.Stocks, and J.G.Goldammer. 2000. Modeling of carbonaceous particles emittedby boreal and temperate wildfires at northern latitudes. J. Geophys. Res. 105,D22, 26,871-26,890.
Ludwig, J., F.X. Meixner, B.Vogel, J. Förstner. 2001.Soil-air exchange of nitric oxide: An over-view of processes, environmentalfactors, and modeling studies. Biogeochemistry 52, 225 257.
Oberlander,E. A., C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, P. J. Crutzen, N. F. Elansky, G. S. Golitsyn, I.G. Granberg, D. H. Scharffe, R. Hofmann, I. B. Belikov, H. G. Paretzke, and P.F. J. van Velthoven. Trace Gas Measurements Along the Trans‑SiberianRailroad, the Troica 5 Expedition. J. Geophys. Res., accepted for publication.
Oertel, D., P. Haschberger, V. Tank, F.Schreier, B. Schimpf, B. Zhukov, K. Briess, H.-P. Röser, E. Lorenz, W. Skrbek,J.G. Goldammer, C. Tobehn, A. Ginati, and U. Christmann. 2000. Two dedicatedspaceborne fire missions. In: Proc. Joint Fire Science Conference and Workshop,Boise, Idaho, USA, 15-17 June 1999, Vol.I, p. 254-261. Published by theUniversity of Idaho and the International Association of Wildland Fire.
Page,H., L. Rupp, S. Wiessner, and J.G. Goldammer. 2001. Großversuch zumFeuer-Management auf den Rebböschungen des Kaiserstuhls. Abschlussbericht andas Ministerium Ländlicher Raum Baden-Württemberg (Kap. 0802, Tit. Gr. 68574), 30 p.
Schwela, D.H., J.G. Goldammer, L.H. Morawska,and O. Simpson. 1999. Health Guidelines for Vegetation Fire Events. Guidelinedocument. Published on behalf of UNEP, WHO, and WMO. Institute of EnvironmentalEpidemiology, Ministry of the Environment, Singapore. Double Six Press,Singapore, 291 p.
Siegert, F., G. Ruecker, A.Hinrichs, and A.A. Hoffmann. 2001.Increased damage from fires in logged forests during droughts caused by El Niño.Nature 414, 437-440.
Stocks,B.J., B.M. Wotton, M.D. Flannigan, M.A. Fosberg, D.R. Cahoon, and J.G.Goldammer. 2001. Boreal forest fire regimes and climate change. In: Remotesensing and climate modeling: Synergies and limitations (M. Beniston and M.M.Verstraete, eds.), 233-246. Advances in Global Change Research, Kluwer AcademicPublishers, Dordrecht and Boston.
Shvidenko,A., and J.G. Goldammer. Firesituation in Russia. Int. Forest Fire News, 24, 41‑59, 2001.
Weiher,J.O., U. Schraml, H. Page, and J.G. Goldammer. 2000. Feuer in derLandschaftspflege. Analyse eines Interessenkonflikts aussozialwissenschaftlicher Sicht. Naturschutz und Landschaftsplanung 32, 250-253.
Individualcontributions to the FAO/FRA Global ForestFire Assessment 1990-2000
Goldammer,J.G. 2001. Africaregion fire assessment. In: FRA Global Forest Fire Assessment 1990-2000. ForestResources Assessment Programme, Working Paper 55, p. 30-37. FAO,Rome, 495 p.
Goldammer,J.G. 2001. (comp.)Tropical and non-tropical Southern Africa. In: FRA Global Forest Fire Assessment1990-2000. Forest Resources Assessment Programme, Working Paper 55, p. 42-56. FAO,Rome, 495 p.
Goldammer,J.G. 2001. Westmoist and Central Africa sub-region. In: FRA Global Forest Fire Assessment1990-2000. Forest Resources Assessment Programme, Working Paper 55, p. 84-85. FAO,Rome, 495 p.
Goldammer,J.G. 2001. Westand East Sahelian Africa sub-region. In: FRA Global Forest Fire Assessment1990-2000. Forest Resources Assessment Programme, Working Paper 55, p. 95-96. FAO,Rome, 495 p.
Goldammer,J.G. 2001. Asiaregion fire assessment. In: FRA Global Forest Fire Assessment 1990-2000. ForestResources Assessment Programme, Working Paper 55, p. 115-131. FAO,Rome, 495 p.
Goldammer,J.G. 2001. SouthAsia sub-region. In: FRA Global Forest Fire Assessment 1990-2000. ForestResources Assessment Programme, Working Paper 55, p. 169-171. FAO, Rome, 495 p.
Goldammer,J.G. 2001. MiddleEast, Central and East Asia sub-region. In: FRA Global Forest Fire Assessment1990-2000. Forest Resources Assessment Programme, Working Paper 55, p. 189-191. FAO,Rome, 495 p.
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