Forschungsbericht 1999-2001
„Auswirkungen von Vegetationsbränden auf Atmosphäre, Klima, Ökosysteme und Gesellschaft“
Max-Planck-Institut für Chemie / Arbeitsgruppe Feuerökologie / Global Fire Monitoring Center (GFMC)

1999-2001 Research Report on
“Impacts of Burning of Vegetation on Atmosphere, Climate, Ecosystems and Society”
Max Planck Institute for Chemistry and Fire Ecology Research Group / Global Fire Monitoring Center (GFMC)

1.1 Atmospheric impacts*

The Biogeochemistry Department, in collaboration with the Department of Atmospheric Chemistry, and numerous other German and foreign institutions has been investigating the emissions from vegetation fires and their impact on atmospheric chemistry and climate. Emission characterization studies were made in the laboratory and in the field. These serve as inputs to models of plume dynamics and chemical evolution. Field measurements in the tropics were made with the specific objective to study the impact of biomass burning, but pronounced atmospheric perturbations from biomass smoke were found during many campaigns were they had not been expected, e.g., in Siberia and in the upper troposphere over the North Atlantic and the Mediterranean.

Emission measurements
In December 2000-January 2001 a series of biomass burning experiments were run as part of the SAFARI 2000 project at MPIC. The project was conceived and lead by J. Lobert, P. Crutzen and W. Keene. Samples of representative biogenic material were gathered in the field, and then burnt under controlled conditions. The GC-MS system has been used to quantitatively analyse several organic halides (in particular methyl chlorides, bromides and iodides) emitted from biomass burning as well as qualitatively to determine the identity of other organic emissions. The PTR-MS was used to monitor at high measurement various VOC emitted from burning such as acetonitrile, acetone, benzene and toluene which are predominantly emitted during the smoldering phase. Work is currently in progress on the analysis of the data.

During a range of fire experiments and wildfires of opportunity emission samples were taken in a range of ecosystems worldwide to determine the typical emission ratios of methyl bromide (CH3Br) and methyl chloride (CH3Cl).In continuation of the long-term data collection and analysis program that started in 1993 measurements were conducted in grassland/shrubland fuels of SW Germany (2000), boreal pine forests of Canada (2000) and temperate pine forests in Germany (2001).

The assessment of the importance of emissions from domestic biofuel use has been an important focus of biomass burning research in the Biogeochemistry Department. Plant biomass provides about 14% of the world’s demand of primary energy. Half of the global population covers an average of 35 percent of its energy needs by domestic biomass burning. In Africa, the biomass contribution alone to the total energy use typically ranges from 80-90% in poor, 55-65% in middle and 30-40% in high income groups. Unlike the occurrence of free-burning vegetation fires which is usually restricted to several months during the dry season, domestic biofuel combustion takes place during the whole year. To assess emissions from these fire practices, patterns and consumption of biofuels have been studied. Emissions of CO2, CO, NO and occasionally organic compounds and aerosols were measured in house-holds of rural and urban Zimbabwe, Nigeria and Kenya. In accordance with a questionnaire survey in Kenya, fuelwood was the main biofuel used with average consumption rates by rural households in the range 0.8-2.7 kg per day and person. Charcoal was mostly consumed by urban household sat weighted average rates in the range of 0.18-0.69 kg per day and person. Together with population statistics and the emission figures, we thus were able to assess the CO2, CO and NO emissions from domestic combustion processes (Kituyi, Marufu, Wandiga et al., 2001a, b; Kituyi, Marufu, Huber et al., 2001). A tentative global analysis shows that the carbon source strength of domestic biomass burning is on the order of 1500 Tg a-1, 140 Tg a-1 referred to CO2and CO emissions, respectively, and the normalized nitrogen source strength is2.5 Tg a-1 referred to NO emissions. This represents contributions of about 7 to 20% to the global budgets of these gases (Ludwig et al., 2001).

Considerable progress has been made in the last decade with regard to the determination of emissions from burning of plant biomass. Presently available global data were critically evaluated and integrated into a consistent format (Andreae and Merlet, submitted). The summary of characteristics of pyrogenic emissions revealed that a large number of chemical species have been identified in the smoke of vegetation fires. The global emission estimates, which were updated in the paper, have been refined but require further validation. This applies particularly to the estimates of biomass burned as a function of space, time and type of combustion.

Smoke plume modelling
The goal of this project is the simulation of the photochemical processes in a young biomass burning plume. For this purpose, the 3-dimensional active tracer high-resolution atmospheric model (ATHAM) was used and extended by a chemical mechanism to describe the oxidation of the emitted hydrocarbons. For the evaluation of the model, simulations were done to represent the situation of a prescribed fire performed as part of the SCAR-C experiment. The model simulations successfully reproduce the physical behaviour of the plume as well as the observed low ozone concentrations in the plume close to the fire and the down-wind increase of the ozone mixing ratio up to a value of 70 ppb. Photochemical ozone production in the plume is limited by the availability of radicals, which are mainly produced from the photolysis of formaldehyde. Omitting the primary emissions of formaldehyde from the fire leads to a significant underestimation of the ozone concentration. Future studies will investigate the photochemistry in young biomass burning plumes under different meteorological and fire conditions representative for different ecosystems.

Effects on atmospheric chemistry
During four campaigns in Amazonia (CLAIRE-98, two EUSTACH-99 campaigns, andCLAIRE-2001) the impact of pyrogenic emission on the tropical atmosphere was investigated. During CLAIRE-98, we succeeded for the first time to document the injection of biomass smoke through the ITCZ into the tropical upper troposphere, and the chemical processing of the smoke during deep convection. DuringEUSTACH-99, we made the first measurements of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in the moist tropics during the dry season. During the wet season, CCN concentrations were much lower than what had been expected previously. We showed that the fires increased the aerosol and CCN load by a factor of about 20, with dramatic consequences for cloud microphysics. We were also able to make a detailed chemical characterization of the water soluble components of pyrogenic aerosol, and attribute its CCN activity to both organic and inorganic components.

The most prominent VOCs present in air over the last part of the wet season were isoprene, formaldehyde, and formic acid, with mixing ratios of each ranging up to several parts per billion (ppb). Methyl vinyl ketone as well as methacrolein, both oxidation products of isoprene, ranged around 1 ppb. The sum of the measured monoterpene concentrations was below 1 ppb. At the end of the dry season the amount of C1-C2 organic acids and C1-C2 aldehydes increased significantly up to 17 and 25 ppb respectively, which is thought to result from vegetation fire emissions. High methanol concentrations also support this scenario. The uptake of oxygenated compounds, acids and aldehydes, by vegetation was observed during both seasons, but increased significantly during the dry season (Kesselmeier, Kuhn et al., submitted)

Emissions from biomass burning were also found to make important contributions to air pollutant loadings in extratropical regions. Forest fires in Russia, covering for instance, annually an average area of 1.2 million ha for 1990-1999, affect the atmospheric budgets of CO, CO2, CH4, NOx, and other gases, and the global carbon cycle (Shvidenko, Goldammer, 2001). Particularly, the Russian Far East region differs from other parts of Russia by frequent forest fires due to specific climatic and forest vegetation characteristics. While fire certainly results in significant emissions, the severity of the fire event will largely determine how quickly thesite will switch from a carbon source to a carbon sink. During the TROICA 5experiment in June-July 1999 the most pronounced enhancements of CO were registered due to peat fires in Central Russia and due to extensive forest fires in the Far East region. The peat burning plumes in the European part of Russia were intercepted for ca. 150 km, with the highest CO mixing ratio observed during this campaign – 2467 nmol/mol. The CO concentration increase reaching1071 nmol/mol on the 1500 km section of the Russian Far East was unique in extent reflecting severe wildfires. These fire events were also accompanied by the increase of CH4 and NO concentrations. Back trajectory analysis confirmed interception of fire plumes. Similarly to TROICA 2 (1996), high night-time O3 values in eastern Siberia during TROICA 5 coincided with a tremendous CO concentration increase. Using 14CO measurements Bergamaschi et al. (1998) unambiguously showed that in summer 1996 biomass burning caused an unusual increase in CO mixing ratios between Chita and Khabarovsk. This and back trajectories indicate that during TROICA 5 O3-richnocturnal events in the Russian Far East occurred most likely due to extensive forest fires. Consistently pronounced O3 minima corresponded to events when strong boundary-layer inversions were accompanied by strongly increased NO, CO, CO2 and CH4 concentrations from wildfire plumes, which resulted in O3 titration (Oberlander et al., 2001, see report of Department of Atmospheric Chemistry).

The upper troposphere and lowermost stratosphere have been investigated by a number of airborne measurements in which the Department of Atmospheric Chemistry participated and the influence of vegetation fires was an area of interest. In the STREAM 98 campaign it was not possible to detect clear signatures of tracers of vegetation burning in the lower stratosphere region. In the upper troposphere, however, sporadic biomass smoke plumes were detected (Lange et al., 2001; Lange et al., submitted). In the MINOS study measurements of ozone, radicals and precursor gases, including a host of hydrocarbons and reaction inter-mediates, were conducted and confirmed that pollutant levels are high throughout the Mediterranean, up to several thousand kilometres downwind of sources. The sources include industrial activity in Eastern Europe and biomass burning in southern Europe (see report of Department of Atmospheric Chemistry).

1.2 Climate

A multiyear global database of vegetation fires for use in climate modelling
Current parameterisations of trace gas and aerosol emissions from vegetation fires in global atmospheric models are based on a purely statistical approach and provide no information on the long-term change of these emissions or on inter-annual variability. Short-term variability can be induced by climatic oscillations. Long-term changes are induced by the location and extent of vegetation burning originating from migration, land-use change, population growth, and economical decisions. Changes in climate change may play a role, too, but they probably have a minor effect compared to the socio-economic factors. In recent years, more data have become available that allow a crude estimate of the variations in the global distribution and extent of vegetation burning over the last decades. Jointly with the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology we will develop a multiyear global database of vegetation fires (project: “The impact of external forcings on climate in a comprehensive climate model” (DEKLIM)).These data together with demographic and meteorological information form the first time-resolved global database of vegetation fires for use in global climate modelling. Estimates will be contained of long-term changes in vegetation patterns and standing phytomass as well as of the amount of phytomass burnt in individual years. New algorithms and meteorological data will allow to derive emission fluxes for several trace gases and aerosols. The project started in 2001-2002.

1.3 Fire ecology

Impact of fires during the 1997-98 El Niño– Southern Oscillation on tropical rain forest ecosystems
In 1992 the Fire Ecology Research Group initiated a 9-years technical and scientific cooperation project on Integrated Forest Fire Management (IFFM) between Germany and Indonesia. In 1997/98 fires driven by an exceptional drought associated with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon devastated large areas of tropical rain forests in the Province of East Kalimantan on the island of Borneo, as well as in other parts of the country. Evidence suggests that selective logging might lead to an increased susceptibility of forests to fire. The IFFM team investigated whether this assumption holds for the case of the Indonesian fires which are qualified as the largest fire disaster ever observed. The team performed a multi-scale analysis using coarse and highresolution optical and radar satellite imagery, extensive ground and aerial surveys to assess the extent of the fire damaged area and impacts on the vegetation. Furthermore, we compiled all available data on pre-fire land status and land use. A total of 5.2 ±0.3million ha, including 2.6 million ha forest, was burned with varying degrees of damage. The fires strongly degraded the quality of remaining forests, particularly the Lowland Dipterocarp forests. Fires affected predominantly degraded vegetation and recently loggedover forests while primary or old logged over forests were less affected. The fires significantly increased the risk of recurrent fire disasters in the future by leaving millions of tons of dead, unburned biomass and altering fuel types (Siegert et al., 2001).

Impact of fires on boreal forests (Biogeochemistry Department: J.G. Goldammer)
The “Bor Forest Island Fire Experiment” conducted in 1993 in Krasnoyarsk Region, Russian Federation, in the frame of the “Fire Research Campaign Asia-North” (FIRESCAN), was designed to observe the regeneration and forest dynamics (post-stand replacement fire regeneration) and carbon flux. The experiment will last 200 years (1993-2192). After 1994, 1995, 1996 the experimental site has been revisited in 1999. Future investigations of the site will be in 2-5 year intervals.

During the reporting period a number of investigations have been conducted on the impacts of boreal fires on global processes, particularly on emissions of carbonaceous particles (Lavoué et al., 2000),impact of climate change on boreal fire regimes (Stocks et al. 2001) and management and policy implications (Goldammer, Stocks, 2000).

In 2001 the Fire Ecology Research Group / GFMC built the Krasnoyarsk Fire Webserver at the Sukachev Institute of Forest of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Krasnoyarsk, Russian Federation. The Webserver will be activated in 2002 and will serve as a regional fire information node to the GFMC. In cooperation with the Canadian Forest Service the GFMC set up a pan-Eurasian Experimental Fire Weather Information System for the Russian Federation, the Baltic Region and Central Asia. The internet-based system is updated daily. Source:

Impact of fire on anthropogenic ecosystems of temperate Central Europe
The majority of protected areas in Germany are not of pristine nature. Over centuries landscapes have been shaped by land-use systems such as burning, grazing, mowing and cutting. Transformed natural landscapes are unique ecosystems. They provide habitats for many plant and animal species, which are under protection today, including many endangered (red list) species. The recent socio-economic developments, however, resulted in structural changes of the rural space. Many agricultural sites are treated less intensively or are abandoned because farming is no longer profitable. Without disturbance secondary succession leads to a tree- and shrub-dominated vegetation form which is the potential natural vegetation type in most parts of central Europe. As a result, many plant and animal species adapted to human-made open ecosystems are facing the threat of extinction. A four-year research project (1998-2001) investigated the use of prescribed burning for maintaining the traditional open vegetation structure in SW Germany (Page et al., 2001).Socio-economic aspects of the use of fire in landscape and ecosystem manipulation were covered in a sociological study (Weiher et al., 2000).A new research program has been initiated in 2001 to investigate the impact of prescribed fire on heath ecosystems on Central Europe.

1.4 Society and policies

Global Forest Fire Assessment 1990-2000 (UN-FAO Forest Resources Assessment 2000)
The global Forest Resources Assessment process 2000 provided an opportunity for the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) to define the global effects of fires on forests as a part of the forest assessment that is undertaken every ten years. The assessment summarizes the results of questionnaires and contacts with countries to obtain wildfire data and narrative information regarding the fire situation. The Fire Ecology Research Group / GFMC was entrusted to compile and write the analysis for four of the FAO’s six geographical regions (Africa, Asia, Europe, Oceania) (FAO 2001; see also list of references with 13 individual papers).

The underlying causes of fire use and uncontrolled vegetation fires
The human dimension of global fire application in land-use systems and land-use change as well as causes of uncontrolled vegetation fires have been subject of research since the early 1990s. Main emphasis has been laid on the underlying causes of human-made fires in order to understand the socio-economic, cultural and political reasons of fire application as well as the implications of fire on the various sectors of society. In-depth investigations have been carried out in Indonesia (ongoing) and Mongolia (Ing 1999 (a,b), 2000; Ing-Moody, 2001).Consequently participatory approaches in fire management (Integrated Forest Fire Management, Community-Based Fire Management) have been promoted. A number of local to national Round Tables on Fire Management have been organized by the Fire Ecology Research Group (Namibia 1999, Ethiopia 2000, Guatemala and Albania2001) in order to activate and identify the role of the various stakeholders of the civil society in sustainable fire management. A major conference convened by the German Art and Exhibition Hall in cooperation with the Fire Ecology Research Group provided an interdisciplinary forum for anthropology, cultural history, humanities, environmental sciences and ecology and resulted in a comprehensive monograph on global fire culture (Busch et al., 2001).

Fire emission and public health (Biogeochemistry Department
Emissions from biofuel burning and free-burning (open) vegetation fires have a strong impact on human health, especially through inhalable suspended particulate matter. Sources for indoor pollution from cooking fires have been investigated in Africa. Extreme pollution burdens during extended fire and pyrogenic smog episodes have been investigated during the1997-98 El Niño in the SE Asian region (Heil, Goldammer, 2001). As a consequence of the extended smoke episodes in SE Asia and South America the Fire Ecology Research Group supported the World Health Organization (WHO) in preparation of a state-ofthe-knowledge report on the impact of vegetation fire smoke on human health (Goh et al., 1999)and developed the “WHO Health Guidelines for Vegetation Fire Events” (Schwela et al., 1999).

International policies for disaster reduction (UN International Strategy for Disaster Reduction)
In October 2000 the first UN inter-agency platform for wildland fires has been created under the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR). The Working Group on Wildland Fire is coordinated by the Fire Ecology Research Group / GFMC. The working group will support the overall mandate of the ISDR-IATF by establishing an interagency and inter-sectoral forum on wildland fire of UN and non-UN agencies and programs. The working group intends to meet the information needs of the global fire modelling community. Inputs will be provided to the Conventions on Biological Diversity (CBD), Convention to Combat Desertification (CCD), the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), the United Nations Forum on Forests (UNFF), the FAO Global Forest Resources Assessment and other ongoing international criteria and indicators processes. For details on the ISDR Working Group on Wildland Fire see:

1.5 Technology transfer and development

The Global Fire Monitoring Center (GFMC)
Based on international recommendations the Government of Germany provided initial funding in 1998 for the establishment of the Global Fire Monitoring Center (GFMC) which is located at the Fire Ecology Research Group of the Biogeochemistry Department (Freiburg). The GFMCfire documentation, information and monitoring system is accessible through the Internet. The daily to periodically updated national to global products of the GFMC are generated by numerous institutions worldwide. The GFMC supports the international community of decision makers and scientists by providing global coverage of (a) early warning of fire danger and near-real time monitoring of wildland fires, (b) interpretation, synthesis and archive of wildland fire data through a global network of information providers, (c) support of governmental or other projects of developing national fire management programmes, with emphasis on fire prevention and community-based (integrated) fire management, and (d) consultative support of international organizations. The GFMC is co-sponsored or has officially signed interface procedures with several UN agencies such as the United Nations Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), World Health Organization (WHO), the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UN-OCHA), the World Bank, the World Conservation Union (IUCN) and other institutions.

Forest fire modelling for decision support (German Research Network for Natural Disasters, Cluster A2 Forest Fire Research)
The expected changes in socio-economic conditions, practices in forest management, and may lead to higher fire occurrence and likelihood of increased fire severity in Central Europe. This will require appropriate knowledge and decision-support systems to handle larger forest fires in the future. Within the German Research Network for Natural Disasters (Deutsches Forschungsnetz Naturkatastrophen – DFNK) a Work Package /Cluster “Early Warning, Monitoring, Information Management and Simulation of Forest Fire Danger” is included.

Under the lead of the Fire Ecology Research Group and in close cooperation with various research groups throughout Germany, a GIS-based information system is currently developed (1999-2003) which will include early warning, monitoring, information management and simulation of forest fire danger (including long-term forecasts). This prototype system will be implemented in the south-eastern part of the state of Brandenburg, Germany. A set of four large experimental forest fires has been conducted in August 2001 in Brandenburg State. Preliminary results can be seen at:

Dedicated fire satellite BIRD, ISS payload FOCUS
Advanced sensor technologies and operational systems of dedicated fire satellites are required to improve the spatio-temporal coverage and information content for research and disaster management purposes (Ahern et al. 2001). A prototype improved high temperature event (HTE) sensor, the Bi-spectral IR Detection (BIRD) small satellite mission has been developed by the German Aerospace Center (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt – DLR) in cooperation with the Fire Ecology Research Group / GFMC (Oertel et al., 2000).The Advanced BIRD Airborne Simulator (ABAS) was successfully tested over the Brandenburg Forest Fire Experiments in August 2001 (Oertel et al., in press).BIRD has been launched successfully on 22 October 2001 and is currently tested (December 2001 – February 2002). The development of the Innovative Infrared Sensor System FOCUS, to be flown as an early external payload of the International Space Station (ISS) is another pending joint DLR-GFMC project.

* Contributors to 1.1 Atmosphericimpacts:
M.O. Andreae, P. Artaxo, T. Biesenthal, C. Brenninkmeijer, P. Ciccioli, P.J.Crutzen, T. Dindorf, H. Fischer, P. Formenti, S.R. Freitas, J.G. Goldammer, J.M.Gregoire, P. Guyon, A. Hansel,G. Helas, P. Hoor, C. Jost, W. Keene, J. Kesselmeier, E. Kituyi, R. Kormann, R.Krejci, U. Kuhn, L. Lange, J. Lelieveld, W. Lindinger, J. Lobert, K. Longo, , L.Marufu, P. Merlet, E. Oberlander, W. Peters, M. de Reus, S. Rottenberger, G.Schebeske, B. Scheeren, M.A.F. Silva Dias, J. Ström, T. Tavares, J. Trentmann,R. Valentini, P.F.J. van Velthoven, J. Williams, A. Wolf

Ahern, F., J.G. Goldammer, and C. Justice (eds.). 2001. Global and regional vegetation fire monitoring from space: Planning a coordinated international effort. SPB Academic Publishing bv, TheHague, The Netherlands, 302 p.

Bergamaschi, P., C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, M. Hahn, T. Röckmann, D. H. Scharffe, P. J. Crutzen, N. F. Elansky, I. B. Belikov, N. B. A. Trivett, and D. E. J. Worthy. 1998. Isotope analysis based source identification for atmospheric CH4 and CO sampled across Russia using the TransSiberian railroad. J. Geophys. Res., 103 (D7), 8227-8235.

Busch, B., J. G. Goldammer und A. Denk (Wiss. Red.). 2001. Feuer. Schriftenreihe Forum, Bd. 10, Elemente des Naturhaushaltes II. Kunst- und Ausstellungshalle der Bundesrepublik Deutschland (Hrsg.). Wienand, Köln, 608 S.

De Ronde, C., and J.G. Goldammer. 2001. Fire situation in South Africa. In: FRA Global Forest Fire Assessment 1990-2000.Forest Resources Assessment Programme, Working Paper 55, p. 76-83. FAO, Rome, 495 p.

FAO 2001. FRA Global Forest Fire Assessment1990-2000. Forest Resources Assessment Programme, Working Paper 55. FAO, Rome, 495 p.

Goh, K.T., D.H. Schwela, J.G. Goldammer, and O. Simpson. 1999. Health Guidelines for Vegetation Fire Events. Background Papers. Published on behalf of UNEP, WHO, and WMO. Institute of Environmental Epidemiology, Ministry of the Environment, Singapore. Namic Printers, Singapore, 498 p.

Goldammer, J.G., and B.J. Stocks. 2000. Eurasian perspective of fire: Dimension, management, policies, and scientific requirements. In: Fire, climate change, and carbon cycling in the boreal forest (E.S. Kasischke and B.J. Stocks, eds.), 49-65. Ecological Studies 138, Springer-Verlag, Berlin-Heidelberg-New York, 461 p.

Heil, A., and J.G. Goldammer. 2001. Smoke-haze pollution: a review of the 1997 episode in Southeast Asia. Regional Environmental Change 2 (1), 24-37.

Ing, S. K. 1999a. The social conditions of fire. A sociological study of the affects and effects of wildfire on the Batschireet and Mongonmort regions of Mongolia. Magisterarbeit (MS thesis), Philosophische Fakultäten, Universität Freiburg, in Zusammenarbeit mit Arbeitsgruppe Feuerökologie, Max-Planck-Institut für Chemie.

Ing, S.K. 1999b. The social conditions of wildfire in Mongolia. International Forest Fire News No. 21, 75-80.

Ing, S.K. 2000. Community-based wildfire management in Mongolia. International Forest Fire News No. 23, 57-60.

Ing-Moody, S. 2001. Waldbrände in der Mongolei und ihre gesellschaftlichen Wurzeln. In: Feuer (B.J. Busch, J.G. Goldammer und A. Denk, Wiss. Red.), 345-353.Schriftenreihe Forum, Bd. 10, Elemente des Naturhaushaltes II. Kunst- und Ausstellungshalle der Bundesrepublik Deutschland (Hrsg.). Wienand, Köln, 608 S.

Kituyi, E., L. Marufu, B. Huber, S.O. Wandiga, I.O. Jumba, M.O. Andreae, and G. Helas.2001a. Biofuel consumption rates and patterns in Kenya. Biomass and Bioenergy20, 83-99.

Kituyi, E., L. Marufu, S.O. Wandiga, I.O. Jumba, M.O. Andreae and G. Helas. 2001b.Biofuel availability and domestic use patterns in Kenya. Biomass and Bionergy20, 71-82.

Kituyi, E., L. Marufu, S.O. Wandiga, I.O. Jumba, M.O. Andreae and G. Helas. 2001. Carbon monoxide and nitric oxide from biofuel fires in Kenya. Energy Conversion and Management 42, 1517-1542.

Lange, L., P. Hoor, G. Helas, H. Fischer, D. Brunner, B. Scheeren, J. Williams, S.Wong, K.-H. Wohlfrom, F. Arnold, J. Ström, R. Krejci, J. Lelieveld, M.O. Andreae. 2001. Detection of lightning-produced NO in the mid latitude upper troposphere during STREAM 98. Journal of Geophyisical Research 106, 27777-27786.

Lavoué, D., C. Liousse, H. Cachier, B.J. Stocks, and J.G. Goldammer. 2000. Modeling of carbonaceous particles emitted by boreal and temperate wildfires at northern latitudes. J. Geophys. Res. 105,D22, 26,871-26,890.

Ludwig, J., F.X. Meixner, B.Vogel, J. Förstner. 2001. Soil-air exchange of nitric oxide: An over-view of processes, environmental factors, and modeling studies. Biogeochemistry 52, 225 – 257.

Oberlander, E. A., C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, P. J. Crutzen, N. F. Elansky, G. S. Golitsyn, I.G. Granberg, D. H. Scharffe, R. Hofmann, I. B. Belikov, H. G. Paretzke, and P.F. J. van Velthoven. Trace Gas Measurements along the TransSiberian Railroad, the Troica 5 Expedition. J. Geophys. Res., accepted for publication.

Oertel, D., P. Haschberger, V. Tank, F. Schreier, B. Schimpf, B. Zhukov, K. Briess, H.-P. Röser, E. Lorenz, W. Skrbek, J.G. Goldammer, C. Tobehn, A. Ginati, and U. Christmann. 2000. Two dedicated spaceborne fire missions. In: Proc. Joint Fire Science Conference and Workshop, Boise, Idaho, USA, 15-17 June 1999, Vol. I, p. 254-261. Published by the University of Idaho and the International Association of Wildland Fire.

Page, H., L. Rupp, S. Wiessner, and J.G. Goldammer. 2001. Großversuch zum Feuer-Management auf den Rebböschungen des Kaiserstuhls. Abschlussbericht an das Ministerium Ländlicher Raum Baden-Württemberg (Kap. 0802, Tit. Gr. 68574), 30 p.

Schwela, D.H., J.G. Goldammer, L.H. Morawska, and O. Simpson. 1999. Health Guidelines for Vegetation Fire Events. Guideline document. Published on behalf of UNEP, WHO, and WMO. Institute of Environmental Epidemiology, Ministry of the Environment, Singapore. Double Six Press, Singapore, 291 p.

Siegert, F., G. Ruecker, A. Hinrichs, and A.A. Hoffmann. 2001. Increased damage from fires in logged forests during droughts caused by El Niño. Nature 414, 437-440.

Stocks, B.J., B.M. Wotton, M.D. Flannigan, M.A. Fosberg, D.R. Cahoon, and J.G. Goldammer. 2001. Boreal forest fire regimes and climate change. In: Remote sensing and climate modeling: Synergies and limitations (M. Beniston and M.M. Verstraete, eds.), 233-246. Advances in Global Change Research, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht and Boston.

Shvidenko, A., and J.G. Goldammer. Fire situation in Russia. Int. Forest Fire News, 24, 4159, 2001.

Weiher, J.O., U. Schraml, H. Page, und J.G. Goldammer. 2000. Feuer in der Landschaftspflege. Analyse eines Interessenkonflikts aussozialwissenschaftlicher Sicht. Naturschutz und Landschaftsplanung 32, 250-253.

Individual contributions to the FAO/FRA Global Forest Fire Assessment 1990-2000:

Goldammer, J.G. 2001. Africa region fire assessment. In: FRA Global Forest Fire Assessment 1990-2000. Forest Resources Assessment Programme, Working Paper 55, p. 30-37. FAO, Rome, 495 p.

Goldammer, J.G. 2001. (comp.)Tropical and non-tropical Southern Africa. In: FRA Global Forest Fire Assessment1990-2000. Forest Resources Assessment Programme, Working Paper 55, p. 42-56. FAO, Rome, 495 p.

Goldammer, J.G. 2001. West moist and Central Africa sub-region. In: FRA Global Forest Fire Assessment1990-2000. Forest Resources Assessment Programme, Working Paper 55, p. 84-85. FAO, Rome, 495 p.

Goldammer, J.G. 2001. West and East Sahelian Africa sub-region. In: FRA Global Forest Fire Assessment1990-2000. Forest Resources Assessment Programme, Working Paper 55, p. 95-96. FAO, Rome, 495 p.

Goldammer, J.G. 2001. Asia region fire assessment. In: FRA Global Forest Fire Assessment 1990-2000. Forest Resources Assessment Programme, Working Paper 55, p. 115-131. FAO, Rome, 495 p.

Goldammer, J.G. 2001. South Asia sub-region. In: FRA Global Forest Fire Assessment 1990-2000. Forest Resources Assessment Programme, Working Paper 55, p. 169-171. FAO, Rome, 495 p.

Goldammer, J.G. 2001. Middle East, Central and East Asia sub-region. In: FRA Global Forest Fire Assessment1990-2000. Forest Resources Assessment Programme, Working Paper 55, p. 189-191. FAO, Rome, 495 p.

Goldammer, J.G. 2001. Fire situation in Mongolia. In: FRA Global Forest Fire Assessment 1990-2000. Forest Resources Assessment Programme, Working Paper 55, p. 225-234. FAO, Rome, 495 p.

Goldammer, J.G. 2001. Europe region fire assessment. In: FRA Global Forest Fire Assessment 1990-2000. Forest Resources Assessment Programme, Working Paper 55, p. 235-248. FAO, Rome, 495 p.

Goldammer, J.G. 2001. Mediterranean sub-region. In: FRA Global Forest Fire Assessment 1990-2000. Forest Resources Assessment Programme, Working Paper 55, p. 249-256. FAO, Rome, 495 p.

Goldammer, J.G. 2001. Northern, Western and Eastern Europe sub-region. In: FRA Global Forest Fire Assessment1990-2000. Forest Resources Assessment Programme, Working Paper 55, p. 305-312. FAO, Rome, 495 p.

Goldammer, J.G., and P. Lex. 2001. Fire situation in Germany. In: FRA Global Forest Fire Assessment 1990-2000. Forest Resources Assessment Programme, Working Paper 55,p. 326-335. FAO, Rome, 495 p.

Goldammer, J.G. 2001. Oceania region fire assessment. In: FRA Global Forest Fire Assessment 1990-2000. Forest Resources Assessment Programme, Working Paper 55, p. 376-379. FAO, Rome, 495 p.

Print Friendly, PDF & Email
WP-Backgrounds Lite by InoPlugs Web Design and Juwelier Schönmann 1010 Wien