Meteorological Conditions in South East Asia: 13 January 1999

Meteorological Conditions in SouthEast Asia

13 January 1999

The ASEAN Fire Weather Information System (ASFWIS) is a co-operation between ASEAN and the Canadian Forest Service. It provides maps describing the current fire weather situation in South East Asia. This system is based upon the Canadian Forest Fire Danger Rating System (CFFDRS) (for further infomation to the CFFDRS refer to, and is currently tested on an experimental basis. Studies have shown that the CFFDRS is applicable outside of Canada. Currently it is also used in a modified form in New Zealand (see References). In New Zealand  the Fire Weather Indices Fine Fuel Moisture Code (FFMC) and the Initial Spread Index (ISI) represent the fire danger in the scrublands. The Duff Moisture Code (DMC) is also applicable in South East Asia, because it potentially describes the moisture state of the upper peat layers in peat and peat swamp forests. All three parameters may serve as a suitable indicator of forest fire danger in South East Asia.

Fire Danger Warning for Northern Thailand

According to the ASFWIS ( for 12 January 1999 these parameters show various fire weather conditions over South East Asia.  The highest FFMC readings are recorded for northern Thailand, with the FFMC ranging between 90-92. Taking the DMC readings into account the fire danger ratings in northern Thailand indicate high fire danger for the 12 January 1999. Due to substantial rain in Irian Jaya the fire danger for grasslands decreased in Irian Jaya.

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Fig.1. FFMC output of the ASFWIS

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 Fig.2. DMC output of the ASFWIS

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Fig.3. ISI output of the ASFWIS

These findings are consistent with the current weather reports from Badan Meteorologi dan Geofisika ( which forecasts rainy and cloudy conditions for Indonesia with temperatures between 20°C (Bandung) and 33°C (Jayapura, Palu) and relative humidity ranging from 58% up to 98%. The general forecast for whole Indonesia is rainy and cloudy.

The Meteorological Service of Singapore ( reports on 12 January 1999 for the South East Asian region “Cloudy conditions were again observed over most parts of Sumatera and  Borneo. No hot spots detected”. The Meteorological Service states for the near future that: “rainfall in the region is expected to be near or above normal for the next few months. However it should be noted that many parts of Indonesia (Kalimantan and parts of Sumatera) would be in their traditional dry season in the next few months. As such, though extensive and prolonged smoke haze is unlikely for this period, occasional short periods (e.g. a few days) of slight to moderate haze in a more localised manner remain probable”.

No fire update information is currently provided by the FFPCP project in Palembang (

Summary: Although the current fire weather conditions do under normal conditions not favour extensive land clearing by fire or escaping wildfires, the consequences of the large wildfires of 1997-98 must been taken into consideration. These fires had caused extensive degradation of primary and secondary forests along with the spreading of “alang-alang” (Imperata cylindrica) grasslands. These grasslands facilitate the spread of uncontrolled fires over large areas. It can be predicted that in November-December with only moderate fire danger new vegetation fires will occur.

See also the IFFN Country Notes.

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