Forest Fires and MeteorologicalConditions in South East Asia
17 March 2000
The Meteorological Service of Singapore reports on 17 March 2000 for the South East Asian region: “Hot spots were observed in central Sumatra and Kalimantan. Cloudy over northern Sumatra and eastern Kalimantan.” Forecasts of winds and surface pressure are also available.
Fig. 1. Regional Surface Winds and Haze/Hot Spot Map, 17 March 2000
(Source: Meteorological Service of Singapore)
The latest NOAA14 satellite image show “High Temperature Events, HTE” (hot spots) and smoke in western Kalimantan. HTE’s can be identified as red dots.
Fig.2. Latest NOAA Satellite images of Kalimantan, 16 March 2000
The GFMC displays selected and daily updated global and Asia-Pacific Experimental Climate Prediction Center (ECPC) Fire Weather Forecasts (Fig.2-7). These examples allow a quicklook and provide daily and weekly total forecasts, and forecasted monthly anomalies (for next month). For background information refer to the ECPC products description page.
tomorrow next week next month
Fig.3.-10. Fire Weather Index (FWI) forecast for tomorrow (left), next week (center) and the predicted FWI anomaly for next month (right) for the Western Pacific and the Pacific Ocean. The daily forecast refers to 12:00 hrs noon UTC (Greenwich) time; the weekly total forecast and the monthly forecasted anomaly refer to 00:00 hrs UTC, which is local noon at dateline (180° longitude). Forecast time is 12:00 hrs noon UTC (Greenwich) corresponding to local evening time in mainland and insular SE Asia (updated: 17 March 2000).
The ASEAN Fire Weather Information System (ASFWIS) is a co-operation between ASEAN and the Canadian Forest Service. It provides maps describing the current fire weather situation in South East Asia. This system is based upon the Canadian Forest Fire Danger Rating System (CFFDRS) (for further infomation to the CFFDRS refer to ASFWIS). Studies have shown that the CFFDRS is applicable outside of Canada. Currently it is also used in a modified form in New Zealand (see References). In New Zealand the Fire Weather Indices Fine Fuel Moisture Code (FFMC) and the Initial Spread Index (ISI) represent the fire danger in the scrublands. The Duff Moisture Code (DMC) is also applicable in South East Asia, because it potentially describes the moisture state of the upper peat layers in peat and peat swamp forests. All three parameters may serve as a suitable indicator of forest fire danger in South East Asia.
According to the ASFWIS for15 March 2000 different parameters show various fire weather conditions over South East Asia.
The ASEAN Haze Action Online provides the following information:
Monitoring: Hyperlinks to institutions involved in regional monitoring and prediction of fire and smoke haze
Fig.11. Fire Overview Map for 17 March 2000 of the IFFM project in Samarinda
Summary: Although the current fire weather conditions do under normal conditions not favour extensive land clearing by fire or escaping wildfires in Indonesia, the consequences of the large wildfires of 1997-98 must been taken into consideration. These fires had caused extensive degradation of primary and secondary forests along with the spreading of “alang-alang” (Imperata cylindrica) grasslands. These grasslands facilitate the spread of uncontrolled fires over large areas.