The NOAA AVHRR satellite image composite of 16 September 1999 shows fire activities in central Russia.
Fig.1. This NOAA AVHRR composite of 16 September 1999 was generated at 10:03 GMT and used for this composite the satellite NOAA 12 and 14. The red squares indicate regions of active fires.
(Source: The satellite maps containing fire information can be accessed under “Cloudiness Maps” at http://nffc.infospace.ru/engl/main.htm)
For details (enlargements, other scenes produced earlier or later) the GFMC readers are encouraged to click on the hyperlinks provided by the Avialesookhrana website. The Avialesookhrana homepage from the National Forest Fire Centre of Russia provides up-to-date NOAA images for the whole of the Russian Federation at http://nffc.infospace.ru/engl/main.htm . The web site of the Space Monitoring Information Support Laboratory provides extensive links to sites with satellite imagery for the Russian Federation, meteorological information as well as fire related images are accessible.
The Aerial Forest Fire Protection Service Avialesookhrana of the Federal Forest Service of Russia reports the state of fire in the 1999 fire season to the GFMC. The latest report is from 8 September 1999:
Up to 7 September 1999 a total 28,176 fires occurred in the forests under the control of the Federal Forest Service of Russia and burning a total of 541,309 ha of forest and 194,787 ha non forest areas (inside forest lands).
During the day of 7 September a total of 204 fires were burning and affected 219 ha forest and 15 ha non forest land. There were 6 big fires for whole of Russia. Five of them in Kareleia with sizes from 50 ha up to 860 ha (All of them almost 100% contained) and one in Vologda reg.
The regions with the highest fire activity on 7 September 1999 were: Kareleia -104 fires on 106 ha; Leningrad reg. – 36 fires on 2 ha; Novgorod reg. -19 fires on 5 ha; Novossibirsk reg.– 13 fires on 5 ha.
The National Forest Fire Center of Russia AVIALESOOKHRANA realizes forest and deer pasture fire control on a territory of more than 800 million ha. The structure of Avialesookhrana includes 21 Regional Forest Fire Centers (aviation bases), two independent subdivisions, uniform clothes factory and the Vladimir state aviation company. Avialesookhrana rents annually from the Civil aviation companies 600 aircraft and has its own aviation park consisting of 60 aircraft including fixedwing planes and helicopters, 20 from them are airtankers and airscoopers. The staff of Avialesookhrana consists of highly skilled specialists: 520 pilot-observes, 4500 smokejumpers and helirappellers as well as more than 2,300 other specialists.
The average number of fires occurs annually are 15,000-30,000. With the help of aviation are detected about 85% and put out more than 60% of total fires in Russian forests.
Bibliography on fire in ecosystems of boreal Eurasia: One of the results of the first international fire science conference in the Russian Federation (1993) was the publication of a monograph on fire in boreal Eurasia, including some selected contributions on boreal North America. The literature cited in the monograph contains numerous publications which in many cases are not easily accessible. To facilitate literature search the bibliographical sources are provided by topic (chapter).