In the Philippines, about 5.49 million ha or roughly 18percent of the total land area are still covered with forests. The remaining oldgrowth, or primary dipterocarp forests, comprises only about 0.804 million ha,far from the 12 million ha of old-growth forest that existed 55 years ago (Igsoc1999). A close look at the causes of this reduction indicates that the majorfactors of denudation are kaingin, or shifting cultivation, forest fires, illegal occupancy,conversion to other uses, clearing in the process of logging, pests anddiseases. Fire is obviously a very serious problem that threatens the fewremaining forests of the country. Humans have caused most of the reported forestfires, either intentionally for economic gains such a kaingin,charcoal production, etc., or unintentionally through negligence orcarelessness.
The major forest vegetation types of the Philippinesinclude: