Source: A Review of Fire Projects in Indonesia (1982-1998) Rona Dennis. 1998.  prepared for CIFOR, ICRAF, UNESCO, EC JRS Ispra

Donor/Agency: Japanese International Cooperation Agency (JICA)
Executing Agency: Directorate of Forest Protection, DG PHPA, MoF
Project Type: Bilateral
Budget Grant: US$ 8 296 250 (exchange rate 16/9/96)
Regions/Provinces: Central Level (Bogor), Rantau Rasau Subdistrict, Jambi and Nanga Pinoh Subdistrict, West Kalimantan
Project Office: Head Office, Direktorat Perlindungan Hutan,
Ditjen PHPA
Ji. Ir. H. Juanda No. I 00. Bogor 161 00
Tel: 0251 323 972
Personnel: Five JICA experts and Indonesian counterparts Team Leader: Miyakawa Hideki; EWS Specialist: Ueda Tomoyuki; Jambi Site: Masahiro Otsuka
Time-frame: April 1996-April 2001(5 years)

FFPMP Project Description

The overall goal of the project is to prevent forest devastation and environmental disturbances caused by wildfires and smoke. The project aims to strengthen the capability of the MoF at central level, in Jakarta and Bogor, to deal quickly with forest fires and also to improve prevention and initial suppression at the local level.

The field site in Jambi is located in a lowland peat swamp area in close proximity to Berbak National Park. The site in West Kalimantan in located in Kabupaten (Regency) Sintang in a hilly area.

Project Objectives

As described in a project brochure, these will be achieved through the following activities:

1. Early warning and defection system – Identification of forest fire prone areas and detection of fire hot spots and smoke using HIMAWARI and NOAA satellite imagery. In early 1997, a satellite image receiving station was set up in the Directorate of Forest Protection in Bogor. Two systems are in use. One receives hourly meteorological images from the Japanese HIMAWARI satellite, and the other is a British made NOAA-AVHRR receiver similar to the model used by the EU FFPCP in Palembang.

The HIMAWARI imagery covers all of Indonesia, Australia and Asia; the spatial resolution is more than the I km x I km of AVHRR. Imagery from HIMAWARI is used mainly for monitoring haze and smoke and not for the identification of fire hot spots. The AVHPR imagery, which is received twice daily, is automatically processed to produce hot spot maps for Kalimantan and Sumatra, and occasionally Maluku and Sulawesi.

Visibility permitting, daily fire hot spot maps were produced by the JICA/PHPA system during the 1997-98 fires. This infon-nation was relayed directly to the Minister of Forestry and the provincial forestry offices. For a few months during 1997, this hot spot infomiation was also displayed on the Ministry of Forestry Web site; however, it is no longer accessible by these means.

During November 1997, field checking of fire hot spot maps was carried out in the province of Lampung from a helicopter. In hilly terrain and certain vegetation types, it was found that there was a poor comparison between recorded hot spots and bum scars on the ground. A number of other projects (pers. comm) have also found a poor comparison between hot spots from AVHRR and actual hot spots on the ground.

Planned activities for 1997-98 include:

  • development of image processing techniques for HIMAWARI and NOAA imagery and hot spot detection based on the field results of 1997;
  • production of a forest fire base map using weather, land cover and land cover parameters; and
  • field application of the Forest Fire Rating System.

2. Extension and training – Extension and education concerning forest fire prevention and traininc, in initial suppression will be given to local communities (in the sites in Jambi and West Kalimantan) and local forestry staff. The extension programme consists of films, pamphlets, and discussions. The total number of village participants in the first year was approximately 2700. In 1997, a theoretical and practical training programnle in initial suppression techniques was given to forestry staff in West Kalimantan.

Planned activities for 1997-98 include:

  • improvement of extension materials; extension programs in at least 20 communities in each of the project sites;
  • development of an evaluation method for the extension activities; and
  • a survey of forest fire characteristics in peat swamp forest in the Jambi site.

3. Participatory methods – Forest management techniques that are effective for forest fire prevention along with greenbelt establishment trials will be introduced to local communities in the project sites. During 1996-97, a preliminary survey through interviews was conducted on the socioeconomic and cultural aspects of the communities in the Jambi project site.

Planned activities for 1997-98 include:

  • a survey of the socioeconomic and cultural aspects of the local communities in the West Kalimantan site;
  • implementation of a participatory fire management approach in the Jambi site; and
  • preparation for establishment of a greenbelt establishment in the Jambi site.

Participatory Approach in the Jambi Site

Otsuka (1997) has documented the participatory approach to forest fire prevention in the Jambi s for site. The approach is as follows:

  • land use intensification;
  • greenbelt and fuel break; and
  • surveys of biophysical and socioeconomic dimension of the fire problem, such as fire histories and fire prone areas; causes of fires; customary land management and the control; land tenure status and conflicts; community self-help activities and government assistance and communities’ responses.


Otsuka, M. 1997. Guidelines for participatory Natural Resource Management for Forest Fire Prevention: a case from Berbak National Park, Jambi, Indonesia. Paper presents at the International Workshop on National Guidelines on the Protection of Forests Against Fire. Sponsored by IFFM/ITTO at IPB, Bogor 8-9 December 1997


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