The ASEAN Fire Forum: Discussion Results


The ASEAN Fire Forum:
Results of the Working Group Discussions


Johann Georg Goldammer1 , Carla Hogan Rufelds 2,Jean-Paul Malingreau 3, Robert Yokelson 4, Hartmut Abberger 1,Antonio Manila 5

1GTZ-Integrated Forest Fire Management Project, Tromol Pos 826, Samarinda 75001, East Kalimantan, Indonesia, and Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Fire Ecology and Biomass Burning Research Group; c/o University of Freiburg; PO Box; D-79085 Freiburg, Germany
2 Canadian International Development Agency, Asia Branch, 200 Promenade du Portage, CDN-Hull, Quebec K1A 0G4, Canada
3 Institute for Remote Sensing Application, CEC Joint Research Center, I-21020 Ispra, Italy
4 Department of Chemistry,University of Montana, USA-Missoula, Montana 59812, U.S.A.
5 ASEAN Institute of Forest Management,Forestry Department Building, Jalan Sultan Salahuddin, 50660 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Goldammer, J.G., C. Hogan Rufelds, J.-P. Malingreau, R. Yokelson, H. Abberger, and A. Manila. 1997. The ASEAN Fire Forum: Results of the Working Group Discussions. In: Transboundary Pollution and the Sustainability of Tropical Forests: Towards Wise Forest Fire Management – The Proceedings of the AIFM International Conference (Haron Abu Hassan, Dahlan Taha, Mohd Puat Dahalan, and Amran Mahmud, eds.), 420-437 (Annex II). ASEAN Institute for Forest Management, Ampang Press, Kuala Lumpur, 437 p.

Working Group I: AIFM Forest Fire Management Plan of Action

Working Group II: Fire Monitoring – ASEAN
Working Group III: Fire and the Atmosphere of the Maritime Continent: Towards a Major Coordinated Research Programme
The South East Asian Fire Experiment (SEAFIRE): Draft Structure of a Science Plan for the ASEAN Region


The ASEAN Fire Forum was held on the second day of the AIFM Conference on “Transboundary Pollution and the Sustainability of Tropical Forests: Towards Wise Forest Fire Management”. The results of the discussions and recommendations of three working groups have outlined priorities for a future ASEAN-wide programme in fire management and research.


On the second day of the AIFM Conference on “Transboundary Pollution and the Sustainability of Tropical Forests: Towards Wise Forest Fire Management” (2-4 December 1996, Kuala Lumpur) an ASEAN Forest Fire Forum was organized. In the beginning of the one-day session several papers were given to introduce the specific problems of fire and transboundary haze pollution in the ASEAN region (cf. paper by Goldammer, this volume) and to present possible solutions through regional cooperative fire management programmes.

  1. Subsequently it was intended to initiate the discussion on the elements of an ASEAN-wide Forest Fire Management Plan of Action:
  2. Establishment of National Focal Points in each country with inter-alia the following functions:
  • inventory of existing resources
  • information dissemination mechanism
  • identification of types of information to be shared/disseminated
  1. Preparation of a regional fire and atmospheric transport model research program (the IGBP-IGAC “Southeast Asian Fire Experiment” [SEAFIRE] in conjunction with the “Integrated SARCS/IGBP/ IHDP/WCRP Study on Land-use Change in SE Asia”. discussion on the development of an atmospheric transport model in order to predict the tracts and spread of smoke and haze.
  2. Establishment of procedures for monitoring and reporting of fires
  3. Development of a common air quality index and harmonization of air quality sampling techniques
  4. Development of a regional fire danger rating system
  5. Drafting procedures on sharing knowledge and technology in the prevention and mitigation of forest fire and other emission sources
  6. Establishment of mechanisms for cooperation in combating forest fires and other emission sources and their points of activation
  7. Definition of the role of the ASEAN Institute of Forest Management (AIFM) to strengthen national capacity through training in forest fire management
  8. Enhancment of national and regional capabilities to deal with forest fires and other emission sources.

Due to the complexity and of the topics to be discussed and further developed in detail and the limited amount of time available, the number of Working Groups were reduced to three. The results of the Working Group discussion are presented below.


Working Group I:
AIFM Forest Fire Management Plan of Action

1. Objectives

The objectives for the ASEAN Forest Fire Forum Working Group I were to:

  1. Discuss, confirm and put into priority the primary elements of the AIFM Forest Fire Management Plan of Action (AIFM Plan of Action) with key regional stakeholders.
  2. Determine the state-of-the-art of land-use fire and wildfire management within the ASEAN region and outside ASEAN.
  3. Identify next-steps towards implementation of the AIFM Plan of Action including identifying first steps, listing national partners and establishing a regional support network.


2. Participants

There were approximately 20 participants in Working Group I. Six of seven ASEAN countries were represented (Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam). Representatives from AIFM, ITTO, Canada, Denmark, Germany, Nigeria and USA were also present. There was an approximate gender split of 20% women and 80% men.

3. Results by Objective


Objective 1

Discuss, confirm and put into priority the primary elements of the AIFM Forest Fire Management Plan of Action (AIFM Plan of Action ) with key regional stakeholders.

The four primary elements of the AIFM Plan of Action were listed and discussed. The validity of each element was confirmed by the regional stakeholders and there was general agreement that the AIFM Plan of Action is key to implementing a regional fire management strategy. A fifth element, Policy Research and Recommendations, was suggested and agree to by the group. The need to ensure improved information exchange and library services both within the region and internationally was highlighted and included as a key component of the Institutional Linkages element. The AIFM Plan of Action elements in order of priority, as determined by the Working Group, are:

Priority 1: Policy research on, for example the root causes of regional landuse and wildfires, alternatives for land clearing, technologies and equipment, with recommendations presented to national and regional decision-making bodies.

Priority 2: Establishment of an AIFM Plan of Action Network which promotes and coordinates institutional linkages, information exchange and library services.

Priority 3: Coordination of regional training, equipment and communications standards, which are based upon ASEAN sub-regional fire monitoring and control strategies, and which allow for cooperative regional training opportunities.

Priority 4: Enhancement of regional fire monitoring capacity including the development of ASEAN Forest Fire Danger Rating and Fire Weather Information Systems.

Priority 5: Development of regional wildfire fighting resource sharing strategies and agreements.

Objective 2

Determine the state-of-the-art of land-use fire and wildfire management within the ASEAN region and outside ASEAN.

The Working Group participants compiled a list of current experience in the ASEAN region with respect to each of the five priorities. It was agreed that these experiences comprise the starting point of the AIFM Plan of Action. It was also stressed that the experiences of agencies, governments and the private sector outside of ASEAN should be identified, collected, assessed and adapted in order to contribute lessons learned, procedures, research, etc. to the AIFM Plan of Action.

The following table outlines the state of the art within ASEAN for each priority and presents a partial identification of outside sources of expertise (Tab.1).

Tab.1. State of the art in fire management within ASEAN for each priority, presenting a partial identification of outside sources of expertise.

 AIFM Plan of Action State of the Art in ASEAN Experience Outside of ASEAN Priority 1

Policy Research &

  • Thailand: Fire Exclusion Policies
  • Indonesia: Integrated Forest Fire Management Project (IFFM)
  • ITT0 Policy Guidelines on Tropical Forest Fire Management
  • FAO/ECE/ILO Recommendations on international collaboration in fire management and research

Priority 2

Institutional Network Services

  • AIFM
  • SEAFIRE (International)
  • (ASOEN) Technical Task Force on Transboundary Pollution
  • Sénégal (Dept. of Environment and Forests)
  • Côte d’Ivoire (Comités de Lutte Villegoises for village organizations and training)
  • Internet (FIRENET)
  • International Association of Wildland Fire

Priority 3

Training, Communications & Equipment Standards

  • Indonesia: IFFM Multi-Level Training
  • Thailand: Canadian Training & Equipment Adapted
  • Philippines: Local Manufacturing of Handtools
  • Existing Training Programs (Indonesia, Philippines, Thailand)
  • Training & Information campaigns at grassroot levels
  • US Forest Service Branches in:
  • Missoula
  • San Dimas
  • National Wildfire Coordinating Group
  • National Resource Training Centre (Marana)
  • Canadian Interagency Forest Fire Centre (CIFFC)
  • IFFM (Indonesia-Germany)
  • Finnish Training Partners
  • Environmental Training Centre (Canada)
  • Corporación Nacional Forestal (Chile)
  • Sécurité Civile (France)
  • FAO Wildland Fire Management Glossary

Priority 4

Fire Regulation Information

  • AFWIS Prototype
  • Thailand FDRS
  • Indonesia
  • Fireprone maps
  • Action Plans for East Kalimantan, Sumatera
  • FDRS for East Kalimantan (IFFM) and Sumatera (IFFSP)
  • USFS Forest Fire Research
  • National Fire Danger Rating System
  • Fuel Modelling
  • GTZ: IFFM (East Kalimantan)
  • EU: FFPCP (Sumatera)
  • India (ex FAO/UNDP)
  • Canadian Forest Service (Northern Research Centre)

Priority 5

Regional Resource Sharing Strategies

  • Thailand (Resource Sharing: Ultimate Authority with RFD
  • Indonesia (National Coordination Team on Land and Forest Fire Management)
  • USFS
  • National Interagency Coordination Centre (Boise)
  • Incident Command System (ICS)
  • CIFFC (Canada)
  • CONAF (Chile)


Objective 3

Identify next-steps towards implementation of the AIFM Plan of Action including identifying first steps, listing national partners and establishing a regional support network.

The participants identified the following activities within each priority as “urgent action items” which should be the first activities undertaken given scarce resources, the existing expertise in the region and internationally and crucial regional and national needs:


Priority 1: Policy Research and Recommendations

  • Fine-tune ITTO guidelines for the region/sub-region
  • Intrasectoral coordination
  • Community-level needs/resources/interest


Priority 2 Institutional Network & Information Services

  • Formation of Steering Committees/Boards of Directors with key national focus institution representatives
  • Information exchange and library services
  • National coordination and linkages with all fire agencies
  • Identify responsibilities for fire suppression
  • Obtain Agreement from ASEAN to implement the AIFM Plan of Action and SEAFIRE
  • Formulate short-term action plans


Priority 3: Training, Equipment and Communications Standards

  • Identify strategies for different ASEAN sub-regions
  • Identify who will fight the fires (communities, private sector, governments, etc.)
  • Apply existing experiences to other countries
  • Invite ASEAN participants to ongoing, multi-level training programmes (Thailand, Indonesia, Philippines)
  • Share training manuals after translation
  • Prepare guidelines
  • Training for other sectors (agriculture, other)


Priority 4: Regional Fire Information Systems

  • Information on how to use Fire Information Systems
  • Adapt existing systems to ASEAN taking into account social use of forests, patterns of settlement, seasonal usage, etc.
  • Support resource sharing strategies
  • Coordinate and share information for regional fire danger rating system (establish a task force)


Priority 5: Regional Resource Sharing Strategies

  • Identify one key authority
  • Identify equipment and training standards
  • Identify cost-recovery mechanisms
  • Start with national resource sharing strategies
  • Develop a common “fire language”
  • Strategies particularly for sharing high-cost equipment and specialized crews

Working Group participants identified the various national-level agencies which are active in the priority areas identified by the AIFM Plan of Action. While the lead national institutions have been identified by ASOEN, the following list of agencies will have important roles to play in the implementation of the AIFM Plan of Action:



  • Ministry of Forestry
  • Ministry of Agriculture
  • Ministry of Transmigration
  • National Aerospace & Aeronautics
  • Centre for Forest Rehabilitation
  • Environmental Impact Management Agency
  • Regional Government Agencies
  • Association of Indonesian Forestry Communities
  • Association of Forestry Concessions
  • Meteorology and Geophysics Agency
  • NGOs (e.g. WALHI)
  • Malawarman University
  • Bogor Agriculture University
  • Gagamata University



  • Department of Environment
  • Fire Service Department (Local)
  • Meteorological Service Department
  • Forestry Department
  • Universiti Pertaniam Malaysia
  • University Science Malaysia
  • Malaysia Nature Society



  • Department of Environment & Natural Resources
  • State Colleges & University, Los Baños
  • Philippines Atmospheric Geophysical & Astronomical Services
  • Local Government Units (Provincial, Municipal, Community)
  • NGOs



  • Ministry of Environment
  • Singapore Met. Services
  • ASEAN Specialized Meteorology Centre
  • Fire Brigade Service



  • Royal Forestry Department
  • NGOs
  • Katsesart University



  • Forest Protection Department (Ministry of Agriculture & Rural Development)
  • Forest Development Department
  • Forest Protection Department
  • Forest Inventory & Planning Institute
  • Forestry College

Given the discussions pertaining to the state-of-the-art of landuse and wildfire management in ASEAN (see Objective 2 above) a proposal was put forward for an AIFM Forest Fire Action Plan Implemention Network. Using AIFM as the regional coordinating agency, the Network includes the countries, agencies and projects within the region which are currently experienced and active in addressing the AIFM Plan of Action Priorities. The graphic (Fig.1) illustrates the proposed make-up of the network.

AIFM Forest Fire Action Plan Implementing Network

Fig.1. Proposed AIFM forest Fire Action Plan Implementing Network

Working Group II:
Fire Monitoring – ASEAN


The Working Group on Fire Monitoring consisted of five representatives from institutions inside of ASEAN and of the Institute for Remote Sensing Application of the EU (Ispra, Italy). The group concentrated in compiling the objectives and the major fields of activities to be coordinated within the ASEAN region.



There is a clear need for a proper documentation of fire events across the ASEAN region. While general occurrence of fire and fire-generated smoke at regional level is known, there is still a lack of seasonal and spatial distribution of fires in the various land-use systems and wildlands. Fire monitoring at regional scale is not necessarily aimed for fire fighting operations. Such operational fire observations for local fire managent purposes must be arranged within the individual nations. Regional fire activity monitoring will include the evaluation of archives with historic satellite data in order to identify possible changes of fire regimes. For the current state of fire monitoring in the region: see contribution by Malingreau et al. (this volume).


Information Requirements

The fire monitoring system must provide spatio-temporal information on fire activities which will allow the production of datasets useful for a variety of purposes. Information requirements are:

  • Where are fires burning? High geographic accuracy is required in order to know in which ecosystem type or in which land-use system individual fires or a sequence of fires (fire episodes) are burning
  • The selection of appropriate time of fire monitoring within a season and within the day respectively is critical in order to obtain the most complete picture of regional fire activities.
  • This must include considerations of frequency of observation, e.g. daily, 7-days (weekly) syntheses, etc., and periods of observation (e.g., continuous, or at regional peaks).

The resolution of data must be determined in accordance with specific sub-regional needs (variable resolution within the ASEAN region).


Observing System

The observation system will be based on the NOAA AVHRR instrument until other instruments will become available, such as instruments being developed and tested in various national and international projects (e.g., NOMOS, FireSat, BIRD, FUEGO).

Two possible approaches for data flow (distribution):

  • Three stations collect and contribute data to central unit for processing, analysis, and distribution of the observation products. This will lead to heavy data flows;
  • A sub-network of the World Fire Web (WFW-ASEAN) will be established. This will require agreements on processing, algorithms, and display. The advantage is that only fire data will be circulating, thus, the data flow will be reduced considerably. It requires, however, a common geographic and thematic database.

Algorithms for fire detection must be tuned o regional conditions/requirements and must be as automatic as possible. The development of such system will require considerable research and development efforts.

The afternoon pass of the NOAA AVHRR has priority. However, night passes are required for verification, especially considering lower cloud cover at night.


Data Validation – Internal

In order to obtain highest accuracy, internal data validation must be targeted to develop/test:

  • performance of detection algorithm
  • minimum fire size
  • false alarms



The calibration of sensors must comprise

  • past fire patterns
  • controlled fire experiments
  • impact of clouds per region (equatorial, monsoon, subtropical)
  • effect of diurnal cycle per land use type


Analysis and Distribution of Data

The analysis of data will require the avilability of a GIS database which must comprise

  • regional vegetation distribution map
  • fuel map
  • fire risk map
  • land use systems/practices map with information on fire agents, causes

This kind of database can then be linked to atmospheric chemical analyses (combined fire-smoke analysis).

Data distribution procedures will follow the needs arising within an ASEAN-wide and the various national fire management programmes. The WWW will facilitate opportunities for open and restricted access to fire datasets.


Working Group III:
Fire and the Atmosphere of the Maritime Continent: Towards a Major Coordinated Research Programme


Working Group III elaborated the citeria, objectives and programatic issues of a research programme devoted to identify the chemistry and transport patterns of emissions from vegetation burning in the South East Asian region. The scope of such programme, however, should include other sources of pollutants, e.g. the burning of biofuels in households, emissions from fossil-fuel burning, and fluxes between in the marine environment and the atmosphere.

The draft science plan of the South East Asian Fire Experiment (SEAFIRE) contains the elements which werde discussed during the Working Group III session.

In addition to the objectives and planning for the research the Working Group underscored the need for coordinating and standardizing sampling and reporting systems.

The South East Asian Fire Experiment (SEAFIRE)


Fig.2. The South East Asian Fire Experiment envisages to clarify the exchange and transport processes between the terrestrial ecosystems, particularly burning of vegetation, the marine environment, and the atmosphere.


The South East Asian Fire Experiment (SEAFIRE):
Draft Structure of a Science Plan for the ASEAN Region



The South East Asian Fire Experiment (SEAFIRE) is a research activity in the planning and preparation phase and will be conducted under the scheme of the International Geoshere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP). The International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) Project is a core project of IGBP. One of the activities of IGAC Focus 2 (Natural Variability and Anthropogenic Perturbations of the Tropical Atmospheric Chemistry) investigates the impact of biomass burning on the atmosphere and biosphere (Biomass Burning Experiment [BIBEX]). SEAFIRE will establish the fire research component within the Integrated SARCS/IGBP/IHDP/WCRP Study on Land-use Change in SE Asia.

SEAFIRE will explore the ecological impacts of fire in land use (fires used in forest conversion and shifting cultivation, grassland and seasonally dry [monsoon] forests) and the characteristics, the regional and global transport mechanisms and the atmospheric chemical impacts of pyrogenic emissions. Biogenic and marine sources of trace gases and aerosols will be considered, as well as technogenic sources (fossil-fuel burning, secondary chemical products). Special emphasis will be laid on inter-annual climate variability (ENSO vs. non-ENSO) and the role of the “Warm Pool” in global distribution of fire products.

Questions to be asked in the context of SEAFIRE and other research prgrammes within the ASEAN region:

  • Are human use of fire and fire regimes undergoing changes?
  • Are ecological and atmospheric chemical impacts of fire contributing to local/regional/global climate changes?
  • Will regional fire use / fire regimes undergo changes in a regionally changed climate?
  • How can existing information and questions to be asked integrated into a interdisciplinary regional study (e.g. transects)?

SEAFIRE’s operational approach is twofold. First, SEAFIRE will build on existing data and research results. It also intends to collaborate with research institutions (government, universities) of ASEAN nations which are working in fields relevant to SEAFIRE objectives (e.g., meteorology, remote sensing, air pollution monitoring). Second, a set of small and large field research campaigns are planned to address the open questions which are largely in the field of emissions chemistry and transport. Such field research will be conducted on the ground, and on air-, space- and ship-borne platforms.


Work content

A. Processes to be Studied

(a) Inside the SEAFIRE-area

(i) Processes related to fire emissions Aerosol and gas emissions (e.g., CO2, CO, NOx, N2O, CH4, NMHC) from:

  • Land-use fires, forest conversion fires
  • Wildfires
  • Biofuel combustion (confined burning, traditional cooking)
  • Influence of these emissions on the regional atmosphere, particularly of the photochemistry of the free troposphere (ozone formation)

(ii) Other natural fire sources

  • Volcanic activities and coal seam fires

(iii) Processes related to fossil-fuel emissions

  • Industrial emissions
  • Transport sector
  • Households

(iv) Processes related to terrestrial biogenic emissions (natural non-disturbed and disturbed vegetation, agricultural systems)

  • Biogeochemical cycles in various land-use types
  • Mono- vs. multi-species
  • Intensified vs. non-intensified land use
  • Food crops vs. tree crops

(v) Marine emissions

(vi) Carbon sequestration in different land-use types


(b) Transport of air masses/trace gases/aerosol

(i) Micro-meso scale, regional, global; ENSO influence

(ii) Aerosol advection

(iii) Trace gas advection


(c) Export from the SEAFIRE area

(i) Export within the boundary layer

(ii)Vertical export

(iii) “Hot tower” export

(iv) Monsoon and ENSO influences

(d) Import into the SEAFIRE area

(i) Monsoon and ENSO influences

(ii) Linkages to Australasia


B. Participants and Work packages


(a) Experiment planning

(i)Work package 1 – Analysis of existing information General synopses must be elaborated on:

  • Land-use changes 1880-2000
  • Demographic trends
  • Industrialization, energy sector
  • Fire in land-use systems (land clearing, forestry, agriculture)
  • Use of biofuels as energy source
  • Global influences of biomass burning (climate forcing)

(ii) Work package 2 – Measurements & meteorological input

  • Compilation of available measurements and integration
  • Field research

a. Land-based measurements

  • Fire emission characteristics/factors (wildland/agricultural fuels, households, volcanoes, coal seams, coal fire inventory)
  • Biogenic emissions (soil, canopy layer)
  • Establishment of pyrogenic and biogenic fluxes
  • Characterize local (micro-meso-scale) and regional transport mechanisms (land, land-sea, sea, cloud dynamics-transport)
  • Fuels characteristics, fire behaviour
  • Soil/peat/lake core sampling


b. Ship-/platform borne measurements

  • Physically-determined exchange processes (CO2)
  • Biologically-driven processes (S components, NO2)
  • Radiosonde, Ozonesonde
  • Aerosol sampling (passive, active)
  • Ocean sediment core sampling

c. Aircraft-borne measurements

  • Concentrations of biogenic / pyrogenic products and their transformation (near-ground helicopter and small fixed-wing, medium-sized for mid-altitude, large aircraft for high-altitude)
  • Meteorological data collection

d. Satellite & spacecraft-borne measurements

  • Monitoring fire activities, establishment of regional fire calendars
  • Space Shuttle and Mir instruments, EOS
  • Trace compounds
  • NDVI etc.

e. Meteorological information

(i) Work package 3 – Data processing and modelling

a. Data analysis, interpretation, archiving & modeling

b. Meteorological transport

c. Gas-phase

d. Aerosol

e. Global influences & climate forcing


Project schedule

In general, SEAFIRE-related campaigns must be conducted in

  • fire and non-fire periods (September/January)
  • low-high phase (ENSO/non-ENSO years)

The programme must also be linked with other programmes, such as the Japanese Biomass Burning and Lightning Experiment (tentatively operational in 1998). The availability of large aircraft may determine joint ground and near-ground campaigns/experiments.


Benefits, Economic and Social Impacts

This research programme should provide as many benefits as possible to the user community, i.e., forest and other land management authorities, environmental agencies, etc. The benefits will arise from the research which has potential application in management systems, e.g. remote sensing and GIS applications for decision support systems in fire management.


Related Projects

  • Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) INDOEX Foci:

  • Significance of sulfates and other continental aerosols for global radiative forcing
  • Magnitude of solar absorption in ITCZ could systems
  • The role of the ITCZ in the transport of trace species and pollutatnts
  • Circum-Australia Aerosol Project (CAAP)
  • GEWEX Asian Monsoon Experiment (GAME)
  • Connect to IGBP Northern Eurasia Study?
  • Alternatives to Slash-and-Burn (ASB)
  • Integrated IGBP/IHDP/WCRP Study Components

SEAFIRE must coordinate with and take required data from IGBP Core Project Activities in the region:

BAHC: Hydrological datasets (influence of hydroregimes on fire; influence of fire on hydroregimes)
GAME: Meteorological/climatological datasets (intra- and inter-annual transport of emissions)
GCTE: GCTE Impact Centre Activities (growth, succession, and nutrient/water balance modelling)
IGBP-DIS: Regional fire calendar (inter- and intra-annual distribution of fire activities)
LOICZ: Land-ocean interface datasets (mixing of land- and ocean-borne gas and aerosol)
LUCC: Land-use / land-use change datasets (quantify fire- and non-fire fluxes from various land-use types)
PAGES: Paleo-vegetation/disturbance (fire) datasets (historic, prehistoric role of fire)


BAHC Biospheric Aspects of the Hydrological Cycles
GAME GEWEX Asian Monsoon Experiment
GCTE Global Change and Terrestrial Ecosystems
GEWEX Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment
IGAC International Global Atmospheric Chemistry project
IGBP-DIS IGBP Data and Information System
LOICZ Land-Ocean Interactions in the Coastal Zone
LUCC Land-Use and Land-Cover Change
PAGES Past Global Changes

South East Asia Background

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