Fig.1. Common scene in Viet Nam: Blackened hills close to Nam Cat Tien National Park
Fig.2. Dipterocarp savanna near Hiep Thanh-Duc Teong, Lam Dong-Ville, with dipterocarp trees (Dipterocarpus alatus), bamboos (Bambusa arundinaria), and pyrophytic grasses (Imperata cylindrica).
Fig.3. Recently underburned plantation of Diperocarpus alatus and Hopea odorata northeast of Ho Chi Minh City towards Nam Cat Tien.
Fig.4/5. Typical low-intensity surface fires in fire climax pine forests (Pinus kesiya) of the highlands of Viet Nam (photographs taken near Xa Hiep Thanh Huyel Duc Trong Lam Dong and road between Da Lat and Nha Trang.
Fig.6. Annual surface fires favor the fire-tolerant pines (P.kesiya) and periodically suppress the dipterocarps which are fire-susceptible and would dominate the forest after multi-year fire exclusion (regeneration shown on the photoghraph: D. alatus).
Fig.7. Fire exclusion in mountain pine forests leads to fuel build-up and an increase of high-intensity fire risk. Photograph shows effects of high-intensity fire in the highlands of Da Lat.
Fig.8. Swamp forest dominated by Melaleuca leucodendron in the Mekong Delta (Long An Region). Fires are often set intentionally in order to get salvage cutting permission.
Fig.9. Rice straw burning (here: near Thong Nhat-Dong Nai) is a major source of atmospheric pollution during the dry season.