Fig.1. Lowland Indaing savanna in Central Myanmar. These degraded forests become extremely flammable during the dry season between February and April.
Fig.2/3. Same Indaing savanna site during and after fire. The tree layer (with Dipterocarpus tuberculatus, Shorea longifolia, Pentacme siamensis) is adapted to frequent (annual) low-intensity fires.
Fig.4. Understory plants in Indiang formations, such as tree ferns, are also well adapted to frequent fires.
Fig.5. Mountain pine (Pinus khesiya) forests in Shan State, Myanmar. These forests are regularly subjected to low- to medium-intensity surface fires which keep the stands open and monospecies. Despite frequent fires, the stands serve for land stabilization (erosion control).
Fig.6. High-elevation forest near Taunggyi: Successful fire exclusion maintains the species-rich mountain broadleaved forest with oaks and chestnuts.
Fig.7. Young plantations, reforestation or natural regeneration (forest rehabilitation) areas in Myanmar must be protected from a fire at least for the first 3 to 5 years: Fuelbreak construction near Yebwint (Meiktila),
Fig.8. Early burning of fuel breaks near Pagan, Myanmar, is an economical method to protect forest rehabilitation and plantation sites.
Fig.9. Fuel collection inside plantations instead of letting wildfires consume the surface fuels. Scarce fuel and energy sources in many rural areas of Myanmar drive collectors of fuelwood, grass and leaves into the forest in order to meet the energy demands for cooking. This practice leads to the reduction of wildfires.
Fig.10. Suppression of a low-intensity forest fire in Myanmar with the help of backpack pumps. The Central Forestry Development Training Centre of Myanmar has taken the lead to promote appropriate technologies for fire control.
Fig.11. Fires at the wildland-urban interface often destroy whole villages and townships of Myanmar.