ECOLOGICAL, ECONOMIC AND MANAGEMENT ASPECTS OF INTEGRATED FIRE MANGEMENT OPTIONS IN VARIOUS TROPICAL AND SUBTROPICAL FOREST AND SUB-FOREST TYPES
Ecological and Economic Aspects of FireTropical Moist ForestTropical Dry and Other Seasonal Forests (e.g. Tectona grandis, Shorea robusta) Coniferous Forests (e.g. Pinus spp.) Industrial Plantations (e.g. Pinus and Eucalyptus spp.) Silvopastoral Systems (e.g. open pine forests with grazing) Grass Savannas (e.g. extensively grazed wildlands)
Ecological Impacts High diversity of species, habitats and niches. High stability High diversity of species, habitats and niches. high water retaining and soil protection capability. Replacement of coniferous species by less fire tolerant broadleaved spezies. Pines only on dry shallow and disturbed sites. Overall increase of species diversity. High water retaining and soil protection capability. High risk of uncontrolled high-intensity stand replacement fires. Undesirable increase of species not suitable for grazing purposes. Replacement of grass stratum by succession. Progressive successional development toward brush/tree savannas or forest. Promotion of less fire tolerant species. Economic and Management
Heavy disturbances, e.g. clearcuts and skid trails must be avoided Economic wood production difficult because of high diversity of species. increase of non-wood forest products. Economic wood production difficult because of high species diversity. Wood production feasible. Extreme high risk of destruction of plantation by wildfire. only possible if intensively grazed and mechanically cleared. Not feasible.
Ecological Impacts Forest community destroyed or degraded. Pioneer Species favored Selection of fire resistant/tolerant tree species. Opening of forest formation. Retreat of fire sensitive species and favoring of fire resistant pines. Opening of forests. Stand replacement fires. Forest degradation. Stand replacement fires. Uncontrolled selective fire pressure. maintenance of openness. Maintenance of a wildfire climax. Uncontrolled selection of fire adapted plants. Economic and Management Implications High losses involved (bio-diversity, site stability, economics) Species composition and relevant management and marketing opportunities out of control. Tendency of degradation and loss of productivity. Management objectives jeopardized if no efficient fire prevention and control system available. Possible long-term degradation and loss of productivity. Productivity depends on savanna type and other degradation factors involved.
Ecological Impacts Not applicable (only on adjoining fire-prone vegetation) Controlled selection of tree species. Advantageous for stimulation and harvest of selected non-wood forest products. Controlled favoring of desired fire-tolerant species. Reduction of stand-replacement fire risk. Maintenance of desired monostructure of plantations. Reduction of stand-replacement fire risk. Increase of vitality and water supply. Controlled promotion (stimulation) of desired tree and fodder plant species. Controlled promotion of desirable grass/herb layer and tree/brush regeneration. Economic and Management implications Integrated Fire management System requires availability of relevant ecological background knowledge, trained personnel, and infrastructural facilities to prevent and control undesired wildfires and conducting safe prescribed burning operations