USA — The men cluster in a tight pack, identities obscured by fire-resistant Nomex clothes, each one anonymous except for the color of his helmet: red for corrections officers, blue and yellow for inmates.
When the air was hot and the woods were parched last summer, the peak of the wildfire season in the West, these trained wilderness firefighters fought 13 forest fires in Arizona, including the one in June that half-destroyed the nearby village of Yarnell and killed 19 members of the Granite Mountain Hotshots, an elite team. On a crisp morning this fall, they were using chain saws and pulaskis a firefighting tool that combines an ax and an adz to chop overgrown bushes in a private development here, offering a measure of fire prevention for houses built in the wild.
Their home base is the Arizona State Prison Complex-Lewis, but when asked where they are from, the reply is simply Buckeye, the name of the town where the prison is located. If there are other questions, they call it a gated community and leave it at that.
That were inmates is the last thing on anybodys mind, said John Chleboun, 33, who has been serving time for burglary at the Lewis complex and is entering his second year with the crew.
As federal agencies have cut costs during the budget standoffs in Washington, further decreasing the size of a firefighting work force that has already been reduced by 40 percent since the 1980s, the burden of fighting wildfires has been shifted to states and local jurisdictions, even as they struggle under the weight of a sluggish economy. Prison crews, cheap and dependable, have emerged as a solution as wildfires burn bigger, hotter and longer each year and take up a growing portion of the United States Forest Service budget. (In 2012 alone, federal agencies spent $1.9 billion on wildfire suppression, just shy of the record, set in 2006.)
Theyre very cost-effective, said Julie Hutchinson, a battalion chief for the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection, which has the nations oldest and largest inmate firefighting program: roughly 4,000 prisoners and 200 crews. And theyre out in the community, paying back for their mistakes.
States log significant savings, paying inmates a small fraction of the reimbursement fees paid to federal agencies for using their teams to fight fires or the price of hiring private companies to do the work the prisoners do in the off-peak season, like picking up trash along highways in Nevada, maintaining hiking trails in Colorado, and thinning forests and removing dried vegetation all across the region.
California pays inmates $1 per hour for work in emergencies like fires and floods, saving the state an estimated $80 million per year, according to forestry and fire protection statistics. In Nevada, where inmates work for the same pay, they bring in around $3.5 million in annual revenue from the nonfirefighting projects for which they are hired, said Jody Weintz, who manages the program for the Nevada Division of Forestry. (Noninmate firefighters earn around $10 an hour, as well as hazard pay and overtime.)
In Arizona, the pay for inmates is among the lowest in the country: 50 cents an hour. In Colorado, which had the nations third-highest rate of recidivism in 2010, 52.5 percent, the programs supervisor estimated that fewer than 25 percent of the inmates released after working on wilderness firefighting teams returned.
Some firefighting experts, however, do not believe that the social calculus makes much sense.
Wilderness firefighting is a line of work where there are more people looking for jobs than there are jobs available, said Stephen J. Pyne, a professor at the School of Life Sciences at Arizona State University and a former wilderness firefighter who has written numerous books about the history and mechanics of wildfires. Why are we turning that over to prison crews?
While inmates pay is low, there are other rewards. Arizona inmates work outdoors much of the year, and if they are out fighting fires, their status as inmates is not easy to discern. In California, inmates wear orange fire-retardant jumpsuits and sleep in separate camps when they are out on fire lines. But firefighting inmates in Arizona wear the same clothes as other wilderness firefighters.
They eat and sleep in the same cafeterias and campsites, an arrangement that defies the rigid relationship barriers enforced inside prison walls. They also undergo the same training required of other wilderness firefighters and pass a physical assessment known as a pack test: traveling three miles on foot in 45 minutes, carrying 45 pounds on their backs.
Theyve got to have the heart, the strength and the willingness to do the job, said Jake Guadiana, an Arizona State Forestry coordinator and the boss of the Lewis crew. This is not the place for you if youre looking for a free meal and some time out of prison.
Sometimes the inmates try to take advantage of the light supervision and escape. Mr. Weintz, in Nevada, said that happened once or twice a year, but as far as he could tell, escapees were always taken back to prison, though not to the firefighting program. A clean disciplinary record is one condition of participation. Another is being in prison for a nonviolent offense.
More commonly, program managers say, the inmates leave prison at the end of their sentences and join firefighting crews. One of them, Grant Lovato, 46, who worked two seasons with the Lewis crew while serving time in prison for credit card fraud and identity theft, is now a firefighter for the United States Fish and Wildlife Service in Gulfport, Miss. In a telephone interview, he said, The idea that I could be in prison and still get out into the woods and get to enjoy the nature was a transformative experience to me.
The job has strict rules, like no phone calls or visits while on assignment, and carries many risks. Five inmates and a correctional officer died in June 1990 in the Dude Fire, near Payson, Ariz., sparked by a bolt of lightning, just like the fire in Yarnell. There have been other fatalities and numerous injuries, but none seem to weigh too heavily on the inmates minds.
His helmet tucked under his arm, a mountain peak visible behind him against a bright blue sky, Armando Gloria, 29, who is serving time for robbery at the Lewis prison and is on his third season with its firefighting crew, said, Theres fear, yes, but when youre out there, fighting fire, the fear becomes more like an adrenaline rush.