Govt Denies RI is World’s 3rd Largest Emitter in New Report
22 Dezember 2010
published by The Jakarta Post
Indonesia — The government released an official report on the country’s greenhouse gas emissions, claiming Indonesia emitted less than what the world believed and that the country did not deserve to be named the third-largest emitter. The report, based on the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, said Indonesia released 1.38 billion tons of greenhouse gases in 2000 and 1.79 billion tons in 2005.
The figure was far lower than a 2007 study by the World Bank, the UK Department for International Development (DFID) and Pelangi Energi Abdi Citra Enviro (PEACE), which said Indonesia released some 3 billion tons of greenhouse gases in 2000, mostly from land use change, forest fires and deforestation. The joint study placed Indonesia as the third-highest emitter after China and the US in 2007. The findings in the new report by the Environment Ministry are also different from the conclusions of the National Council on Climate Change (DNPI). The DNPI, set up by President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono, said Indonesia released 2.3 billion tons in 2005.
A senior Environment Ministry official said the report, titled “Indonesia Second National Communication under the UNFCCC”, would be used as the baseline in measuring emissions in Indonesia. “We will submit the report to the UNFCCC as an official document from Indonesia,” Sulistyowati, the deputy assistant for climate change mitigation at the ministry, said Tuesday.
The UNFCCC requires both developed and developing countries to report on emissions. The report said that of the 1.38 billion tons of greenhouse gases released, 50 percent were from land use changes and forests (LUCF) coupled with peat fires. Sulistyowati said that without LUCF, Indonesia released only 556,728 billion tons of CO2 in 2000 and 665,543 billion tons in 2005.
Indonesia has come under pressure following the release of reports naming Indonesia as the third-biggest emitter on the planet. The 2007 World Bank report was released when Indonesia hosted UN climate change talks in Bali. The government denied the claims at several events, but failed to defend its stance because of non-existent emissions data in Indonesia.
The new report also assesses vulnerability, adaptation and mitigation measures taken by Indonesia to deal with climate change. Environment Minister Gusti Muhammad Hatta in the report said that devastating impacts of global warming would likely worsen in Indonesia due to unsustainable economic development and human-induced climate change.
He said the increased incidence of floods, extreme weather events and prolonged drought in some regions would lead to further environmental destruction, human injury and illness. “Warmer temperatures will increase the rates of malaria and dengue fever and lead to an increase in infectious diseases as a result of poor nutrition due to disruptions to food production,” he said.
The report predicted rice production in Java would decrease by between 1.8 million tons and 3.6 million tons between 2025 and 2050 due to climate change. Rice harvests could also further decline by 5.2 million tons in 2025 in Java if the conversion of rice fields for non-agriculture use continued. It also predicted that changing climate coupled with increased demand for water would lead to wider scarcity of water. Shortened rainy seasons would also increase the risk of forest fires. The report said the government was committed to reducing emissions by 26 percent by 2020 using funds from the state budget.