The seminar on Forest, fire, and global change was held in Shushenskoe, at the invitation of the government of the Russian Federation from 4 to 9 August 1996. Participants from the following countries attended: Austria, Canada, Germany, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Russian Federation, South Africa and United States of America. The following non-governmental organizations were represented: International Union of Forestry Research Organizations (IUFRO); the International Boreal Forest Research Association (IBFRA), Stand Replacement Working Group; and the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) Project, of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP).
The seminar was addressed by the chairpersons of the seminar, Mr. D.I. Odintsov, Deputy Chief of the Russian Forest Service and Mr. J.G. Goldammer (Germany), leader of the FAO/ECE/ILO Team of Specialists on Forest Fire. Mr. Odintsov welcomed the participants on behalf of the Deputy Prime Minister, Mr. A. Zaverukha. The seminar was also addressed by Mr. A. Amerhanov, Deputy Minister of Environment and Nature Protection and Mr. J. Najera of the Timber Section of the UN-ECE Trade Division. Mr. S.A. Arichin, Deputy Governor, welcomed the participants on behalf of the Administration of the Province of Krasnoyarsk. The participants of the seminar elected Mr. D.I. Odintsov (Russian Federation) and Mr. J.G. Goldammer (Germany), Co-Chairmen.
The leader of the ECE/FAO/ILO Team of Specialists on Forest Fire presented basic thoughts on the scope of the seminar and on global cooperation in fire research, management and policy development. He described past and ongoing activities and achievements in (a) international exchange of information, through International Forest Fire News (IFFN) and the publications produced by the International Association of Wildland Fire (IAWF); (b) fire research programmes, through the mechanisms of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP/IGAC) and the International Boreal Forest Research Association (IBFRA); (c) international collection of fire data through ECE/FAO, FAO, the European Union EU and the fire science community); and (d) development of international policies and programmes, the ITTO Guidelines on Tropical Forest Fire Management and the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR). He underscored the need for further expanding international collaborative efforts in fire research, management and policy development and expressed his confidence that the results of the seminar will help to support this process.
Shushenskoe airport – location of a fire management technology exhibition in conjunction with the FAO/ECE fire seminar – showing welcome greetings to the delegates.
The amphibous multi-purpose aircraft and water scooper Berijev BE-12P on ground display in Shushenskoe airport (technical information on the BE-12P: see IFFN No.11, July 1994)
Aerial extinguishant drop by BE-12P during the field demonstration in Shushenskoe.
During the seminar invited and voluntary papers were presented by fire scientists, managers and representatives from administrations and international organzations, on the following topics:
Assessments on the extent of land areas affected by fire (forest and other land)
Assessment of damages caused by wildfires
Clarification of the role of forest fires in
– land-use and land cover changes
– ecosystems and in maintaining biodiversity
– global carbon nutritient and water cycles-
– forests affected by industrial and radionuclide pollution-
– ecosystems affected by climate change-
Forest fire management, fire intelligence and equipment
New spaceborne fire sensors
Based on these contributions the seminar formed working groups which prepared a general statement, conclusions, and recommendations which were included in a report and adopted by the seminar participants (see below). The publication of the proceedings will be carried out by the FAO/ECE/ILO Team of Specialists on Forest Fire. The recommendations of the seminar will be presented to the appropriate bodies of the United Nations through the FAO/ECE fire team.
The participants warmly congratulated the Russian authorities and organizers for the excellent arrangements made for the seminar and study visits and expressed their appreciation for the generous hospitality offered. At this point the team leader and co-chairman of the conference once again wants to express his thanks to the major players organizing the conference, Mr. Dimitri I.Odintsov, Deputy Chief, Federal Forest Service of Russia, for providing all necessary resources of the Federal Forest Service of Russia; Mr. Eduard P.Davidenko, member of the FAO/ECE team and science and technology officer of the Aerial Forest Fire Center of Russia Avialesookhrana, for preparing the conference over a 2-years period; Mr. Nikolay A.Andreev, Chief of Avialesookhrana, and Mr. Nikolay A.Kovalev, Chief of the Kransoyarsk regional base of Avialesookhrana, for providing the infrastructures for the conference; Mr. Vassilij A.Tolmachev, Russian Forest Service Shushenskoe, and Mr. Vladimir I.Chestera, Krasnoyarsk Forest Committee, for hosting the conference in Shushenskoe and during the field trips.
Conclusions and recommendations of the Seminar on “Forest, Fire, and Global Change”, Shushenskoe (Russian Federation), 4-9 August 1996. Extracts from the conference report (ECE/FAO/ILO 1996)
1. General Statement on The Role of Fire in the Global Environment
Both anthropogenic and natural fires are an important phenomenon in all vegetation zones of the globe. Their impacts, however, are not uniform. Fires may lead to the temporary damage of forest ecosystems, to long-term site degradation and to alteration of hydrological regimes which may have detrimental impacts on economies, human health and safety.
As a consequence of global population growth and land-use changes, the cumulative effects of anthropogenic disturbances, and the over-use of vegetation resources, many forest types, which over evolutionary time periods became adapted to fire, are now becoming more vulnerable to fire.
On the other hand, in many vegetation types, of the temperate, boreal and tropical ecosystems, fire plays a central role in maintaining the natural dynamics, biodiversity, carrying capacity and productivity of these ecosystems. In many parts of the world sustainable forestry and agricultural practices as well as pastoralism depend on the use of fire.
Vegetation fires produce gaseous and particle emissions that have significant impacts on the composition and functioning of the global atmosphere. These emissions interact with those from fossil fuel burning and other technological sources which are the major cause for anthropogenic climate forcing.
Global climate change is expected to affect fire regimes and lead to an increase of occurrence and destructiveness of wildfires, particularly in the boreal regions of continental North America and Eurasia.
Fire control has been the traditional fire policy in many parts of the world. An increasing number of countries have adopted fire management policies instead, in order to maintain the function of fire in removing the accumulation of fuel loads that would otherwise lead to damaging wildfires, and in order to arrest succession at stages that are more productive to humans than are forests and brushlands that would predominate in the absence of fire.
In many countries, however, inappropriate choices are made – often because the responsible authorities and managers are not provided adequately with basic fire information, training, technologies and infrastructures. Large-scale wildfire disasters which occurred in the past years, especially in the less developed countries, may have been less severe and extended if national fire management capabilities had been developed and assistance through the international community provided.
Although the global fire science community has made considerable progress to investigate global impacts of fire, using available and developing new technologies, no international mechanisms exist for systematically collecting, evaluating and sharing global fire information. There are also no established mechanisms at the international level to provide fire disaster management, support and relief.
Therefore the participants of the FAO/ECE/ILO Seminar on “Forest, Fire and Global Change” adopted the following conclusions and recommendations:
The economic and ecological impact of wildland fire at local to global levels has been demonstrated at this seminar. The possibility of major world disasters, such as the transfer of radioactive materials in wildland fire smoke, and the substantial loss of human life in recent fires, has been scientifically documented. The lack of, and need for, a global statistical fire database, by which the economic and ecological impact of fires could be spatially and temporally quantified, was identified. Such a reliable database is essential, under current global change conditions, to serve sustainable development and the urgent needs of fire management agencies, policy makers, international initiatives, and the global modelling community.
Similarities in wildfire problems throughout the world are evident, particularly increasing fire incidence and impact coupled with declining financial resources for fire management, underlying the urgent need to coordinate resources at the international/global level in order to deal effectively with impending major wildland fire disasters.
As climate change is a virtual reality, with predicted significant impacts at northern latitudes, seminar participants recognize that boreal and temperate zone fire activity will increase significantly in the future, with resulting impacts on biodiversity, forest age-class distribution, forest migration, sustainability, and the terrestrial carbon budget. It is essential that future fire regimes in these regions be accurately predicted, so informed fire management decisions can be made.
Quantifiable information on the spatial and temporal distribution of global vegetation fires is urgently needed relative to both global change and disaster management issues. Considering the recent various initiatives of the UN system in favour of global environmental protection and sustainable development, the ECE/FAO/ILO Seminar on Forest, Fire and Global Change strongly urges the formation of a dedicated United Nations unit specifically designed to use the most modern means available to develop a global fire inventory, producing a first-order product in the very near future, and subsequently improving this product over the next decade. This fire inventory data will provide the basic inputs into the development of a Global Vegetation Fire Information System.
The FAO should take the initiative and coordinate a forum with other UN and non-UN organizations working in this field, e.g. various scientific activities of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP), to ensure the realization of this recommendation.
The information given in the Annexes I to III (Draft Proposals for the Development of a Standardized Fire Inventory System) to these recommendations describe the information requirements (classes of information, information use), the establishment of mechanisms to collect and distribute fire inventory data on a global scale.
The development of a satellite dedicated to quantifying the geographical extent and environmental impact of vegetation fires is strongly supported. Such an initiative is currently being evaluated by NASA, and this seminar strongly recommends that this and similar initiatives (e.g., NOMOS sensor on MIR space station) be encouraged and supported.
A timely process to gather and share information on ongoing wildfire situations across the globe is required. The creation of a WWW Home Page to handle this information flow is recommended. This could be coordinated with an ongoing G7 initiative, the Global Emergency Management Information Network Initiative (GEMINI), which includes a proposal to develop a Global Fire Information Network using the World Wide Web.
Mechanisms should be established that promote community self reliance for mitigating wildfire damages and would also permit rapid and effective resource-sharing between countries as wildfire disasters develop. Since the United Nations Disaster Relief Organization (UNDRO) is an organization recognized and established to coordinate and respond to emergency situations, including wildfires, it is recommended to entrust this organization, in collaboration with the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), to prepare the necessary steps. The measures taken should follow the objectives and principles of the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR).
The unprecedented threat of consequences of fires burning in radioactively contaminated vegetation and the lack of experience and technologies of radioactive fire management requires a special, internationally concerted research, prevention and control programme. Such programme should be implemented under the auspices of the FAO/ECE/ILO.
The Wildland Fire 97 International Conference in Canada should be used as a forum to further promote the recommendations of this seminar. This can be realized through co-sponsorship of this conference by the FAO, UNDRO, UNESCO, IDNDR and the ECE/FAO/ILO Team of Specialists on Forest Fire.
Draft Proposals for the Development of a Standardized Fire Inventory System
A Vegetation Fire Inventory System at both national and international levels serve a large number of practical needs:
Regional – national fire management
a) budget – resource requirements
b) daily to annual tracking of activity compared to normal
c) long-term trends
d) interagency – intergovernmental assistance
e) changes in long term trends
Regional – national non-fire
a) integrated assessments – monitoring of fire impacts on other resources
b) policies and regulations on
International use of fire inventory
a) updated forest inventory; availability of timber; fire integrated in resource availability salvage
fuel loading forest inventory, age class, size class
3. gamma type
fire characterization (crown, surface, etc.)
structural involvement (wildland urban interface)
4. delta type (current ECE/FAO)
number of fires
area burned (by forest type)
cause of fires (number)
5. epsilon type
gas and aerosol emission data
6. eta type
total expenditure of fire programme
total fire suppession costs
total direct losses of merchantable timber, structural losses
B. Decision Space Table
C. Parsimonious Fire Inventory
Intergovernmental assistance at bilateral or regional level does not require a global data base. These agreements are regional and may differ in requirements from one region to another. If we exclude national security, we need only annual data for a global database. The gamma data type is assembled from the alpha data so there is no need to report this separately. The beta data on fuels can be obtained from other inventories, but must be standardized. The gamma data type will also require development of international standards before it can be considered. All vegetation fires must be included in this data base.
Establishment of Mechanisms to Collect and Distribute Fire Inventory Data on a Global Scale
A. Current State of Fire Inventory
Data consisting of individual fire reports are developed by many nations, but many regions of the world are not covered.
Only ECE and EU nations have established mechanisms to share data.
Current shared data consists of statistics aggregated from individual fire reports.
Data from remote sensing is rapidly becoming available, but only for fires that can be defined by either heat signature or by fire scars on the landscape.
A large number of uses of an international fire inventory have been identified in fire management, environmental policy and agreements, and in economic growth of nations.
A parsimonious inventory has been identified which can be utilized by all nations (see statement on standardized fire inventory).
There needs to be international agreement to provide fire inventory (similar to the FAO global forest inventory).
Fire inventory at the global scale should consist of individual fire data of date of fire start and end, location of fire, size of fire, and cause of fire. Fire location from individual fire reports normally report origin of fire. Remote sensed data are more likely to report centre of burned area. Should fire reports contain centre rather than origin, in addition to origin?
Two additional forms of data will be needed in the future, biome classification and fire characterization. Standard for these additional information will need to be developed
Rapid electronic communication is available for nearly all parts of the globe. Fire inventory data can be made available through World Wide Web. FAO is an appropriate centre to compile and distribute these data.
Remote sensed data will need to be placed in the same format as individual fire reports and be made available on World Wide Web. Images can also be made available through WWW. Appropriate potential centres for compilation and distribution of these data are ISPRA (EU) or NASA’s EOS-DIS.
Those nations which cannot provide data in electronic format, should agree upon a hard copy format which can be scanned and readily placed in electronic format.