An Automated Remote Infraredand Television System for Forest Fire and Ecological Monitoring
(will be published in IFFN No. 23 – December 2000, p. 92-96)
The development of automated systems for monitoring large forest areas and other terrain to detect fires in the early stage and to predict fire spread and fire emissions is a challenge for technological innovations. These monitoring systems must be part of a network for real-time transmission and receiving of data on local, region and national levels.
An automated infrared and television (IR-TV) system has been developed in Belarus for continuous and weather-independent detection of fire in large forest tracts. The system allows the detection of fire in an early stage, thus contributing to prevent large fire disasters and minimise economic losses.
The system allows monitoring of other environment parameters using additional sensors. At present Infrared-Television (IR-TV) systems are set up in the 30km zone around Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident site, and one in a forest enterprise of Minsk Region. The IR-TV system located in Chernobyl Zone is supplemented with radiation sensors to control the level of background radiation and monitor changes during a forest fire.
The system includes a network of IR-TV detection modules placed on watch towers and the Central Point for Information Processing (CPP) (Fig.1). The system consists of three main parts:
IR-TV automatic detection module (Fig.2).
Radio network for transmission of digital information
Central Point of Information Processing
All devices operate automatically. The product of information processing at the CPP is an electronic map (Fig.3). The CPP takes a decision or issues fire alarm.
Description of the system
IR-TV Automatic Detection Module
The system may include up to 128 IR-TV automatic detection modules. The modules scan the terrain, search and identify fire locations by detecting radiation; obtain digital TV images; measure meteorological parameters and radiation.
The IR-TV detection module includes (Fig.2):
IR-telescopic system (detection of high-temperature events)
TV camera with an optical system (black-and-white)
Microprocessor-based unit of control and processing data (Advantech)
Power supply module (variable electricity supply, including solar panels)
Radio network (Motorola)
Fig. 1. System structure of the Automated Remote Infrared and Television System for Forest Fire and Ecological Monitoring
Fig.2. IR-TV detection module
Central Point for Information Processing (CPP)
The Central Point for Information Processing (CPP) receives data from the IR-TV modules and releases alarm after a fire has been identified. The CPP includes an IBM-compatible personal computer (with the Pentium processor and Windows), a radio station (Motorola GM-350), modem, antenna, power supply, and alarm system. The CPP performs the following:
operation of the radio-network
control and diagnostics of each of IR-TV-modules
creation of an electronic map of the region monitored
creation of images
other service functions
Technical specifications are given in Table 1. The CPP is located i. a. w. the requirements for a radio network location. The IR-TV detectors are mounted on watch towers that are strategically located.
Spectral separation and time-amplitude signal analysis is double checked by three rotations of the IR-TV-detector. The signal of the detected fire and its azimuth is registered in the memory of IR-TV-module and stored until information interchange with the CPP. Periodical inquiries at 5- to 10-minute intervals of the IR-TV-modules are realized from CPP. The bearings from the watch towers to the detected fires are indicated as red arrows on the electronic map, and the fire location is determined by the intersecting bearings (Fig.3). Upon request by the CPP the IR-TV-module transmits TV-pictures on the given azimuth. In addition maps of heat fields can be generated that show temperature profiles in colour images. These products are displayed on the CCP monitor. The IR-TV capabilities of the system are as follows:
detection of flames
detection of heat ascending over a fire
confirmation of signal identified by the IR-channel
comparison of heat field maps received in different time periods
fire detection by depicting fire smoke
visual analysis from the interested direction
Figure 3 shows a the example of an electronic map on which the location of the detected fire is indicated.
All electronic and automated IR-TV system units are built in block technology and can be easily replaced if repair is necessary. Structural and functional characteristics of the automated systems for forest fire monitoring allows a connection to the National Forest Management System of Belarus that is currently being developed, and to other services.
Tab.1. Main technical specifications of the Automated Remote Infrared and Television System for Forest Fire and Ecological Monitoring
Maximum temperature resolution of IR channel: <0.5°C Detection distance to fire (6 m3): at least 10 km Spatial resolution: 175 m at 10 km distance Full survey of area under control: 6 min Detection time with confirmation (criteria analysis) of fire location: 30 sec Area controlled by one IR module: >300 km2 Inquiry interval of single IR modules via radio: 5 to 10 min (programmable) Angle of vision of TV channel: 6° TV camera: black-and-white or colour TV channel resolution: 600 Tvl Adjusting of CCD light of TV camera: Automatic Transmission time of TV image: 1.5 – 2 min Information interchange: via radio link at a single frequency (tunable between 137 and 174 MHz) Electricity supply of IR modules and CPP: 220V + 5% (50 Hz) Power requirements: radio stations (base and periphery) 25 W, single IR-TV detection module <150 W, CPP 200 W Operational limitations by temperature: 0°C – +50°C Equipment durability: dust-and water proof
Fig.3. Example of an electronic map on which the location of thedetected fire.
Valery Shamal Head, Laboratory of Scince and Research Institute of Applied Physical Problems Belarussian State University 7, Kurchatov Str. 220064 Minsk BELARUS