The fire currently burning in Riau, Sumatra, Indonesia, are not an extraordinary event and also not a surprise. According to information received by the GFMC there are one or more haze episodes every year usually during February/March and June/July, the driest periods of the year. The situation appears to be deteriorating as more of the peatland loses its natural forest cover and is drained.There is no reason for industrial plantation companies to start these fires but the peat swamps now appear to be a free-for-all resulting in a patchwork of commercial plantations surrounded by fire prone degraded forest and scrub regrowth. For comparison with the 2004 fires: See Figures 1 to 5 with historic scenes similar to the situation in June 2004. See also historic press release at:
Figure 1. This NOAA-12 image of 24 June is taken from the public website of the Singapore National Environment Agency.
Figures 2 to 4. The February and March 2002 SPOT quicklook images are from the Centre for Remote Imaging, Sensing and Processing (CRISP), Singapore National University. They cover the Bukit Batu District.
Figure 5. The year 2000 fire map gives a good indication of the problem areas. The High-Temperature Events (HTEs) represent fires depicted by the NOAA AVHRR receiving station of the Forest Fire Prevention and Control Project (FFPCP – terminated in 2001). The fire coordinates were superimposed on a Landsat image. The clusters of fires are generally plantation development related, correlate well with the road system and are a forest edge feature, mainly peat swamp forest. This particular fire pattern has not changed very much over the years since 1997. The fires mark a gradual encroachment into the few remaining natural forest blocks.
For recent satellite scenes, photographs and background information see:
I. Monitoring of Smoke-Haze and Active Fires (land-use fires and wildfires)
Regional Smoke-Haze Monitoring
The Meteorological Division of the Singapore National Environment Agency provides a daily updated map showing active fires (land-use fires, wildfires), smoke haze and surface wind directions within the South East Asian region.
Latest map of surfacewinds and smoke haze/hot spots observed over cloud-free areas.
Latest regional active fire (hotspot) maps:
Forecast of winds and surface pressure for the South East Asian Region:
Other Regional NOAA and GOES Satellite Images:
Update of Regional Weather and Smoke Haze for the last Month:
Fire Activity Monitoring in Borneo (Kalimantan, Sabah, Sarawak)
Latest fire overview map for Borneo: 26 June 2004
(Source: IFFM FireMaps)
Fire Activity Monitoring in South Sumatra
The South Sumatra Forest Fire Management Project provides regular fire activity maps based on the products of the MODIS Rapid Response System: http://www.ssffmp.or.id/ssffmp/fwi-2.asp?id=2
Fire Activity Monitoring in Mainland SE Asia
The Asia Pacific Network for Disaster Mitigation using Earth ObservationSatellite (ANDES) provides daily fire maps of mainland and insular South EastAsia. The latest maps can be accessed through the ANDES website. The map below shows the last fire map of mainland SE Asia(Thailand, Myanmar, Lao, Cambodia, Viet Nam).
LastANDESfire location map of mainland South East Asia.
The map is generated on the basis of two satellite sensors (NOOA-AVHRR,DMSP/OLS).
II. Fire Weather and Fire Danger Monitoring and Early Warning
Regional Fire Weather
The Regional South East Asia Fire Danger Rating System (SEA FDRS) is a joint effort between the Canadian Forest Service (CFS) and the Malaysian Meteorological Service (MMS), supported by the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA). Daily updated SEA Fire Danger Rating can be downloaded on the following website of MMS, and background information on the project can be found at the SEA FDRS Project website.
Latest example of a SEA FDRS product:
The Fire Weather Index (FWI) values shown on the map are numerical ratings offire intensity.
Information from the Initial Spread Index (ISI) and Build Up Index (BUI) iscombined to provide a numerical rating of fire intensity.
This index is used to indicate the difficulty of fire control based on the headfire intensity and fire fighting capability.
The GFMC displays selected and daily updated global andAsia-Pacific ExperimentalClimate Prediction Center (ECPC) Fire Weather Forecasts.These examples allow a quicklook and provide daily and weekly total forecastsand forecasted monthly totals. For background information refer to the ECPCproducts description page.
tomorrow week monthly
Fire Weather Index (FWI) forecast for thisweek (left) and the predictedFWI total for next month (right)
for the Western Pacific (1-3) and the PacificOcean (4-6) regions.
The weekly total forecast and the monthly forecasted total refer to 00:00 hrsUTC,which is local noon at dateline (180° longitude).
Forecast time is 12:00 hrsnoon UTC (Greenwich)corresponding to local evening time in mainland and insular SE Asia.
(Source: ECPCFire Weather Index Forecast)
Fire Danger Rating for East Kalimantan generally is MODERATE.
– No Hotspot Detected during this week.
– No Land or Forest fire occurences reported by District/municipalities
– The Readiness Level for East Kalimantan is NORMAL.