GFMC: Meterological Conditions and Fire in South East Asia

SouthEast Asia

RegularFire and Weather Update

30 June 2004

HAZE WATCH – 30 June 2004
June 30, 2004

ASEAN Secretariat as the Interim ASEAN Coordinating Centre – – The report is compiled by ASEAN Secretariat based on feedback from the relevant ASEAN member countries and will be updated on a daily basis during this critical period –

Report of Current Situation

The haze situation in Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore has generally improved since Sunday, 27 June 2004. Increased shower activities were experienced over Sumatra and the surrounding region. While hotspot activities in Sumatra have decreased in recent days, hotspot activities in West Kalimantan have remained active. A temporary reprieve from the recent haze situation experienced in Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore can be expected.
The latest hotspot map available (29 June) indicates isolated showers with thunder in the region. There were 40 hotspots detected by NOAA 12 satellite (09:07UTC) in Kalimantan. No hotspots were detected by NOAA 12 in Sumatra.
The recent Southeast Asia Fire Danger Rating maps (dated 29 June) produced by Malaysian Meteorological Service shows all fine fuels will ignite potentially resulting in many fires in southern part of Sumatra and almost all parts of Kalimantan. The general fire danger map indicates that in mixed fuels, severe drought conditions could cause high-intensity fires in north western and southern parts of Kalimantan. Both moderate- and high-intensity fires can be very common in other parts of Kalimantan and southern parts of Sumatra.

The air quality condition in Pekanbaru, Riau Province has slightly worsened, particularly in the morning. Visibility is about 2.5 to 10 km. Rainfall is likely in Sumatra. In West Kalimantan, fires were detected in plantation and forest concessions. The air quality condition has reached hazardous level. The visibility was down to 200 m in the morning. The haze situation has disrupted flight schedule in the airport of Pontianak.

Air quality condition in Malaysia continues to improve. Air quality was in the moderate and good range. Most stations in Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak have recorded good air quality and only a few stations have recorded moderate level. No stations have recorded unhealthy air quality. Rainfall is likely both in Peninsular and East Malaysia based on the three-day outlook.

Singapore’s air quality was within good range (47) with visibility around 10 km reported in two airports. Rainfall is very likely based on the three-day outlook. So far, there has not been any significant haze impact to Singapore.

Resources Mobilised and Actions Taken

Manggala Agni Fire Brigade and Health Agency in Riau are still monitoring the situation closely to anticipate any possible damages/problems. The Provincial Government of Riau and the One Roof Mechanism team (comprising Ministry of Environment, National Police Department and General Attorney) are preparing a law suit to 10 companies suspected of doing open burning. The district of Indragiri Hulu of Riau is conducting a campaign on land and forest fire prevention.

Manggala Agni Fire Brigade of West Kalimantan has been mobilised to suppress the ongoing fires. The Health Agency of Pontianak, West Kalimantan has distributed masks directly to the local communities.

Investigation on hotspots in Sarawak has been carried out. Aerial and ground surveillance are still being carried out. Fires in three areas in Selangor have been extinguished completely. Legal provisions have also been enforced.

Singapore continuously provides updated information on the air quality to the public. ASEAN Specialised Meteorological Centre continues to provide satellite information on hotspots and smoke haze in Sumatra and Kalimantan to Ministry of Environment of Indonesia, Ministry of Forestry of Indonesia and the governments of Riau and Jambi Provinces.

A meeting of Subregional Firefighting Arrangement (SRFA) countries – Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore – is scheduled to be held on 8-9 July 2004 in Singapore. Consultations are being held among the countries to confirm the dates.

Wednesday, 30 June 2004
ASEAN Secretariat
Interim ASEAN Coordinating Centre

Hotspot activities decrease in Sumatra

28 June

29 June

30 June

Source: Meteorological Division of the Singapore National Environment Agency

For recent satellite scenes, photographs and background information see:

I. Monitoring of Smoke-Haze and Active Fires (land-use fires and wildfires)

Regional Smoke-Haze Monitoring

The Meteorological Division of the Singapore National Environment Agency provides a daily updated map showing active fires (land-use fires, wildfires), smoke haze and surface wind directions within the South East Asian region.

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Latest map of surfacewinds and smoke haze/hot spots observed over cloud-free areas.

  • Latest regional active fire („hotspot“) maps:

  • Forecast of winds and surface pressure for the South East Asian Region:

  • Other Regional NOAA and GOES Satellite Images:
  • Update of Regional Weather and Smoke Haze for the last Month:

Fire Activity Monitoring in Borneo (Kalimantan, Sabah, Sarawak)

The Integrated Forest Fire Management Project (IFFM) in Samarinda provides regulary updatedmaps generated by NOAA-AVHRR showing active land-use fires and wildfires inBrunei and the Indonesian and Malaysian provinces on BorneoIsland.

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Latest fire overview map for Borneo: 28 June 2004
(Source: IFFM FireMaps)

Fire Activity Monitoring in South Sumatra

The South Sumatra Forest Fire Management Project provides regular fire activity maps based on the products of the MODIS Rapid Response System:

Fire Activity Monitoring in Mainland SE Asia

The Asia Pacific Network for Disaster Mitigation using Earth ObservationSatellite (ANDES) provides daily fire maps of mainland and insular South EastAsia. The latest maps can be accessed through the ANDES website. The map below shows the last fire map of mainland SE Asia(Thailand, Myanmar, Lao, Cambodia, Viet Nam).

LastANDESfire location map of mainland South East Asia.
The map is generated on the basis of two satellite sensors (NOOA-AVHRR,DMSP/OLS).
Source: ANDES

II. Fire Weather and Fire Danger Monitoring and Early Warning

Regional Fire Weather

The Regional South East Asia Fire Danger Rating System (SEA FDRS) is a joint effort between the Canadian Forest Service (CFS) and the Malaysian Meteorological Service (MMS), supported by the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA). Daily updated SEA Fire Danger Rating can be downloaded on the following website of  MMS, and background information on the project can be found at the SEA FDRS Project website.

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Latest example of a SEA FDRS product:
The Fire Weather Index (FWI) values shown on the map are numerical ratings offire intensity.
Information from the Initial Spread Index (ISI) and Build Up Index (BUI) iscombined to provide a numerical rating of fire intensity.
This index is used to indicate the difficulty of fire control based on the headfire intensity and fire fighting capability.

The GFMC displays selected and daily updated global andAsia-Pacific ExperimentalClimate Prediction Center (ECPC)  Fire Weather Forecasts.These examples allow a quicklook and provide daily and weekly total forecastsand forecasted monthly totals. For background information refer to the ECPCproducts description page.

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tomorrow week monthly

Fire Weather Index (FWI) forecast for thisweek (left) and the predictedFWI total for next month (right)
for the Western Pacific (1-3) and the PacificOcean (4-6) regions.
The weekly total forecast and the monthly forecasted total refer to 00:00 hrsUTC,which is local noon at dateline (180° longitude).
Forecast time is 12:00 hrsnoon UTC (Greenwich)corresponding to local evening time in mainland and insular SE Asia.
(Source: ECPCFire Weather Index Forecast)

Fire  Weather in East Kalimantan

Based on data from six weather stations (Indonesian Meterological Service) the following Fire Danger situation has been determined by the Integrated Forest Fire Management Project (IFFM):

Fire Danger Rating for East Kalimantan generally is MODERATE.
– No Hotspot Detected during this week.
– No Land or Forest fire occurences reported by District/municipalities
– The Readiness Level for East Kalimantan is NORMAL.

For more detailed information, see also: Fire situation report of EastKalimantan (17 February 2004), compiled and analyzed by the Provincial Fire Management Center, Samarinda.The complete (detailed) report willbe sent on request. Contact:

Fire Weather in South Sumatra

The South Sumatra Forest Fire Management Project provides regular fire weather updates:

Fire Early Warning Bulletin for South East Asia

The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) and Project Fire Fight Southeast Asia (PFFSEA) have launched the Fire Bulletin, a weekly analyses and information on fire, haze, and related issues in Indonesia.

III. Further information: 

  • Regional South East Asia Wildland Fire Network

  • IFFN Country Notes

  • The ASEAN Haze Action Online provides the following information:

    • Monitoring: Hyperlinks to institutions involved in regional monitoring and prediction of fire and smoke haze
    • Haze News: ASEAN Transboundary Haze Update (updated daily)
    • Intranet: Information and possible participation in the ASEAN Haze Action Online Intranet Information Services (for associated registered participants)
    • Mobilization Plan: Model Fire Suppression Mobilization Plan
    • Inventory: Inventory and analysis of forest and land fire suppression capabilities
    • Haze Forum: Communication platform on fire and smoke-haze issues in the ASEAN region
    • Calendar: Fire and haze-related events can be identified by a search modus
  • Media Highlights on Fire, Policies, and Politics

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