Meteorological Conditions in South East Asia: 27 August 1999

Meteorological Conditions in SouthEast Asia

27 August 1999

The Meteorological Service of Singapore reports on 26 August 1999 for the South East Asian region: “Cloudy conditions over northern Sumatra.  Hot spots were  observed maily in central and southern Sumatra.”

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Fig.1. Regional Surface Winds and Haze/Hot Spot Map, 26 August 1999
Forecasts of winds and surface pressure are available at

A special site dedicated to haze/smoke, entitled with the same name HAZE, gives further information to the current haze situation over South East Asia and SEAsia haze related sites.

The ASEAN Haze Action Online provides the following information:

  • Monitoring: Hyperlinks to institutions involved in regional monitoring and prediction of fire and smoke haze
  • Haze News: ASEAN Transboundary Haze Update (updated daily)
  • Intranet: Information and possible participation in the ASEAN Haze Action Online Intranet Information Services (for associated registered participants)
  • Mobilization Plan: Model Fire Suppression Mobilization Plan
  • Inventory: Inventory and analysis of forest and land fire suppression capabilities
  • Haze Forum: Communication platform on fire and smoke-haze issues in the ASEAN region
  • Calendar: Fire and haze-related events can be identified by a search modus

The ASEAN Fire Weather Information System (ASFWIS) is a co-operation between ASEAN and the Canadian Forest Service. It provides maps describing the current fire weather situation in South East Asia. This system is based upon the Canadian Forest Fire Danger Rating System (CFFDRS) (for further infomation to the CFFDRS refer to ASFWIS). Studies have shown that the CFFDRS is applicable outside of Canada. Currently it is also used in a modified form in New Zealand (see References). In New Zealand the Fire Weather Indices Fine Fuel Moisture Code (FFMC) and the Initial Spread Index (ISI) represent the fire danger in the scrublands. The Duff Moisture Code (DMC) is also applicable in South East Asia, because it potentially describes the moisture state of the upper peat layers in peat and peat swamp forests. All three parameters may serve as a suitable indicator of forest fire danger in South East Asia.

According to the ASFWIS for 26 August 1999 these parameters show various fire weather conditions over South East Asia.

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Fine Fuel Moisture Code Duff Moisture Code Drought Code

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Initial Spread Index Buildup Index Fire Weather Index

Fig.2-7.  Output maps of the ASFWIS, 26 August 1999

The latest NOAA14 satellite image shows hot spot locations in Kalimantan. “Hot spots” can be identified as red dots.

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Fig.8. Latest NOAA Satellite image of Kalimantan, 26 August 1999

The Indonesian Meteorological Agency Badan Meteorologi dan Geofisika publishs the Indonesia Daily Forecasting for 27 August 1999. For the representative selected areas metereological data are provided as follows:

Palembang Samarinda Ujung Pandang Dili Bandung Weather condition rain rain cloudy cloudy rain Temperature (min-max °C) 23-31°C 24-32°C 21-33°C 21-33°C 19-29°C Humidity (min-max %) 65-97 65-97 47-85 45-80 53-87

The Forest Fire Prevention and Control Project (FFPCP) in Palembang (Sumatra) provides a fire overview map on 26 August 1999.

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Fig.9. Fire Overview Map for 26 August 1999 of the FFPCP project in Palembang.

The latest fire overview map for the Integrated Forest Fire Management (IFFM) project in Kalimantan shows 10 hot spots on the 25 August 1999.

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Fig.10. Fire Overview Map for 25 August 1999 of the IFFM project in Samarinda

Summary: Although the current fire weather conditions do under normal conditions not favour extensive land clearing by fire or escaping wildfires in Indonesia, the consequences of the large wildfires of 1997-98 must been taken into consideration. These fires had caused extensive degradation of primary and secondary forests along with the spreading of “alang-alang” (Imperata cylindrica) grasslands. These grasslands facilitate the spread of uncontrolled fires over large areas.

See also the IFFN Country Notes.

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