The Meteorological Service of Singapore reports on 13 June 1999 for the South East Asian region: “No hot spots were detected over Sumatra and Borneo. The region remains generally clear of smoke haze”.
Fig.1. Regional Surface Winds and Haze/Hot Spot Map, 13 June 1999
The ASEAN Fire Weather Information System (ASFWIS) is a co-operation between ASEAN and the Canadian Forest Service. It provides maps describing the current fire weather situation in South East Asia. This system is based upon the Canadian Forest Fire Danger Rating System (CFFDRS) (for further infomation to the CFFDRS refer to ASFWIS). Studies have shown that the CFFDRS is applicable outside of Canada. Currently it is also used in a modified form in New Zealand (see References). In New Zealand the Fire Weather Indices Fine Fuel Moisture Code (FFMC) and the Initial Spread Index (ISI) represent the fire danger in the scrublands. The Duff Moisture Code (DMC) is also applicable in South East Asia, because it potentially describes the moisture state of the upper peat layers in peat and peat swamp forests. All three parameters may serve as a suitable indicator of forest fire danger in South East Asia.
According to the ASFWIS for 12 June 1999 these parameters show various fire weather conditions over South East Asia. The Initial Spread Index (ISI) reaches values up to 16 in regions, such as central Sumatra and Malaysia.
Fig.2., 3.and 4. FFMC, ISI and DMC output of the ASFWIS, 12 June 1999.
The Indonesian Meteorological Agency Badan Meteorologi dan Geofisika publishs the Indonesia Daily Forecasting for 15 June 1999. For the representative selected areas metereological data are provided as follows:
Summary: Although the current fire weather conditions do under normal conditions not favour extensive land clearing by fire or escaping wildfires in Indonesia, the consequences of the large wildfires of 1997-98 must been taken into consideration. These fires had caused extensive degradation of primary and secondary forests along with the spreading of “alang-alang” (Imperata cylindrica) grasslands. These grasslands facilitate the spread of uncontrolled fires over large areas.