Forest Fires and MeteorologicalConditions in South East Asia
19 April 2000
The Meteorological Service of Singapore reports on 18 April 2000 for the South East Asian region: “Cloudy and wet over Sumatra most parts Kalimantan. Some hot spots were observed in central Sumatra”. Forecasts of winds and surface pressure are also available.
Fig. 1. Regional Surface Winds and Haze/Fire Map, 18 April 2000 (Source: Meteorological Service of Singapore)
The Meteorological Service of Singapore also provides rainfall-record charts for selected locations in Sumatra and Kalimantan with information about the mean annual rainfall and the actual monthly and weekly records for this year.
Fig.2. Rainfall charts for Kalimantan (Source: Meteorological Service of Singapore)
Fig.3. Rainfall charts for Sumatra (Source: Meteorological Service of Singapore)
The GFMC displays selected and daily updated global and Asia-Pacific Experimental Climate Prediction Center (ECPC) Fire Weather Forecasts (Fig.4-9). These examples allow a quicklook and provide daily and weekly total forecasts, and forecasted monthly totals (for next month). For background information refer to the ECPC products description page.
tomorrow this week next month
Fig.4.-9. Fire Weather Index (FWI) forecast for tomorrow (left), this week (center) and the predicted FWI total for next month (right) for the Western Pacific and the Pacific Ocean. The daily forecast refers to 12:00 hrs noon UTC (Greenwich) time; the weekly total forecast and the monthly forecasted total refer to 00:00 hrs UTC, which is local noon at dateline (180° longitude). Forecast time is 12:00 hrs noon UTC (Greenwich) corresponding to local evening time in mainland and insular SE Asia (updated: 19 April 2000). (Source: ECPC)
The ASEAN Fire Weather Information System (ASFWIS) is a co-operation between ASEAN and the Canadian Forest Service. It provides maps describing the current fire weather situation in South East Asia. This system is based upon the Canadian Forest Fire Danger Rating System (CFFDRS) (for further infomation to the CFFDRS refer to ASFWIS). Studies have shown that the CFFDRS is applicable outside of Canada. Currently it is also used in a modified form in New Zealand (see References). In New Zealand the Fire Weather Indices Fine Fuel Moisture Code (FFMC) and the Initial Spread Index (ISI) represent the fire danger in the scrublands. The Duff Moisture Code (DMC) is also applicable in South East Asia, because it potentially describes the moisture state of the upper peat layers in peat and peat swamp forests. All three parameters may serve as a suitable indicator of forest fire danger in South East Asia.
According to the ASFWIS for 18 April 2000 these parameters show various fire weather conditions over South East Asia.
Fine Fuel Moisture Code
Duff Moisture Code
Initial Spread Index
Fire Weather Index
Fig.10.-15. Output maps of the ASFWIS, 18 April 2000 (update: 19 April 2000)
The ASEAN Haze Action Online provides the following information:
Monitoring: Hyperlinks to institutions involved in regional monitoring and prediction of fire and smoke haze