GFMC: Fire Ecology Research Group, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry

Global Fire Monitoring Center (GFMC) / Fire Ecology Research Group

Max Planck Institute for Chemistry


Organizational Arrangements

TheGlobal Fire Monitoring Center (GFMC) has been established in 1998 at theFire Ecology Research Group. Founded in the 1970s at Freiburg University (Germany) the Fire Ecology Research Group was incorporated into the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry in 1990. Until end of 2014 the GFMC / Fire Ecology Research Group was a subdivision of the Biogeochemistry Department of theMax Planck Institute for Chemistry (Mainz, Germany) and is an independent subdivision since 2015.

Since the begin of the 1990s the Biogeochemistry Department (M.O. Andreae) with the Fire Ecology Research Group (J.G. Goldammer) and the Biofuel Burning Research Group (G. Helas), jointly with the Air Chemistry Department (P. Crutzen), have been working together in designing, coordination, organization and implementation of several international fire research campaigns under the umbrella of theInternational Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP). The Fire Ecology Research Group served as co-chair of the scientific steering committee of the vegetation fire science component within theIGBP Core Project International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) – theBiomass Burning Experiment (BIBEX) – and was host of the BIBEX Secretariat.

The scientific interests of the Research Groups of the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry are expressed in the numerous scientific publications authored or co-authored by the four scientists.

Science and Technology Transfer

Since the early 1990s the /GFMC / Fire Ecology Research Group has taken a leading role in science and technology transfer to the UN system through its role as coordinating unit of theUNECE/FAO Team of Specialists on Forest Fire (until phasing out of the Team in July 2014). Between 1997 and 2000 the Fire Ecology Research Group acted as convener of the UN International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR) Early Warning Programme Working Group “Fire and Related Environmental Hazards”. As a member of theInter-Agency Task Force for Disaster Reduction of theUnited Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR) the GFMC served as a convener of theWorking Group on Wildland Fire between 2001 and 2003. One of the core activities was the establishment of theGlobal Wildland Fire Network. Based on the achievements of the Working Group the GFMC is currently serving as secretariat of the Global Wildland Fire Network and chair of theUNISDR Wildland Fire Advisory Group under the auspices of and serving the UNISDR system as aThematic Platform.

Since 2014 the GFMC is serving as founding and interim Secretariat of theInternational Wildfire Preparedness Mechanism (IWPM), a non-financial instrument serving as a broker / facilitator between national and international agencies, programmes and projects to exchange expertise and build capacities in wildland fire management and particularly in enhancing preparedness to large wildfire emergency situations. The IWPM has been developed in tandem with theInternational Fire Aviation Guidelines and the International Manual of Common Rules for Fire Aviation.

Location of the Fire Ecology Research Group and GFMC
With the GFMC the Research Group is located in the Old Airport Tower Building at the new Airport Campus of Freiburg University (see maps and navigation aids inAddress, communication and location map


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Meinrat O. Andreae

Fire Ecology Research Group, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry 


Meinrat O. Andreae is Director of the Biogeochemistry Department, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry. He is also professor in the Environmental Engineering Science Dapartment at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech.). One of his main scientific interest is in the role of fire in atmospheric chemistry and biogeochemical cycles. The research groups in the Biogeochemistry Department are all fully or partially involved in fire research. M.O. Andreae served as convener of the BIBEX project (IGBP/IGAC) between 1990 and 1998.

Publications relevant to fire and fire-related processes


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GFMC: Fire Ecology Research Group, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry Meinrat O. Andreae

Meinrat O. Andreae


Meinrat O. Andreae is Director of the Biogeochemistry Department, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry. He is also professor in the Environmental Engineering Science Dapartment at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech.). One of his main scientific interest is in the role of fire in atmospheric chemistry and biogeochemical cycles. The research groups in the Biogeochemistry Department are all fully or partially involved in fire research. M.O. Andreae served as convener of the BIBEX project (IGBP/IGAC) between 1990 and 1998.

 

Publications relevant to fire and fire-related processes

 

 

 


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Publications by M.O. Andreae

Publications relevant to fire and fire-related processes


Andreae, M. O., E. V. Browell, M. Garstang, G. L. Gregory, R. C. Harriss, G. F. Hill, D. J. Jacob, M. C. Pereira, G. W. Sachse, A. W. Setzer, P. L. S. Dias, R. W. Talbot, A. L. Torres, et al., Biomass-burning emissions and associated haze layers over Amazonia. J. Geophys. Res., 1988. 93: p. 1509-1527.

Andreae, M. O. and D. S. Schimel, Exchange of Trace Gases between Terrestrial Ecosystems and the Atmosphere. 1989, Chichester, England, J. Wiley and Sons: 353.

Helas, G., M. O. Andreae, J. Fontan, B. Cros, and R. Delmas, Ozone measurements in equatorial Africa during DECAFE 88, in Ozone in the Atmosphere, R. D. Bojkov and P. Fabian, Editor. 1989, A. Deepak Publishing, Hampton, VA: p. 430-432.

Andreae, M. O., G. Helas, J. Rudolph, B. Cros, R. Delmas, D. Nganga, and J. Fontan, Ozone production from biomass burning in tropical Africa. Results from DECAFE-88, in Fire in the Tropical Biota: Ecosystem Processes and Global Challenges, J. G. Goldammer, Editor. 1990, Springer Verlag, Berlin, Germany: p. 437-439.

Crutzen, P. J. and M. O. Andreae, Biomass burning in the tropics: Impact on atmospheric chemistry and biogeochemical cycles. Science, 1990. 250: p. 1669-1678.

Andreae, M. O., Biomass burning: Its history, use and distribution and its impact on environmental quality and global climate, in Global Biomass Burning: Atmospheric, Climatic and Biospheric Implications, J. S. Levine, Editor. 1991, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.: p. 3-21.

Andreae, M. O., Biomass burning in the tropics: Impact on environmental quality and global climate, in Resources, Environment, and Population: Present Knowledge, Future Options, K. Davis and M. S. Bernstam, Editor. 1991, Oxford University Press, New York – Oxford: p. 268-291.

Lacaux, J. P., R. A. Delmas, B. Cros, B. Lefeivre, and M. O. Andreae, Influence of biomass burning emissions on precipitation chemistry in the equatorial forests of Africa, in Global Biomass Burning: Atmospheric, Climatic and Biospheric Implications, J. S. Levine, Editor. 1991, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.: p. 167-173.

Andreae, M. O., A. Chapuis, B. Cros, J. Fontan, G. Helas, C. Justice, Y. J. Kaufman, A. Minga, and D. Nganga, Ozone and Aitken nuclei over equatorial Africa: Airborne observations during DECAFE 88. J. Geophys. Res., 1992. 97: p. 6137-6148.

Andreae, M. O. and J. G. Goldammer, Tropical wildland fires and other biomass burning: Environmental impacts and implications for land use and fire management, in Conservation of West and Central African Rainforests, K. Cleaver, M. Munasinghe, M. Dyson, N. Egli, A. Peuker, and F. Wencelius, Editor. 1992, The World Bank, Washington, DC: p. 71-110.

Helas, G., H. Bingemer, and M. O. Andreae, Organic acids over equatorial Africa: Results from DECAFE 88. J. Geophys. Res., 1992. 97: p. 6187-6193.

Helas, G., J.-P. Lacaux, R. Delmas, D. Scharffe, J. Lobert, J. Goldammer, and M. O. Andreae, Ozone as biomass burning product over Africa. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 1992. 1: p. 155-160.

Andreae, M. O., The influence of tropical biomass burning on climate and the atmospheric environment, in Biogeochemistry of Global Change: Radiatively Active Trace Gases, R. S. Oremland, Editor. 1993, Chapman & Hall, New York, NY: p. 113-150.

Andreae, M. O., Global distribution of fires seen from space. Eos Trans. AGU, 1993. 74: p. 129-135.

Malingreau, J.-P., F. A. Albini, M. O. Andreae, S. Brown, J. S. Levine, J. M. Lobert, T. A. Kuhlbusch, L. Radke, A. W. Setzer, P. M. Vitousek, D. E. Ward, and J. Warnatz, Quantification of fire characteristics from local to global scales, in Fire in the Environment: The Ecological, Atmospheric, and Climatic Importance of Vegetation Fires, P. J. Crutzen and J. G. Goldammer, Editor. 1993, J. Wiley & Sons, Chichester, England: p. 329-343.

Andreae, M. O., B. E. Anderson, D. R. Blake, J. D. Bradshaw, J. E. Collins, G. L. Gregory, G. W. Sachse, and M. C. Shipham, Influence of plumes from biomass burning on atmospheric chemistry over the equatorial Atlantic during CITE-3. J. Geophys. Res., 1994. 99: p. 12,793-12,808.

Andreae, M. O., J. Fishman, M. Garstang, J. G. Goldammer, C. O. Justice, J. S. Levine, R. J. Scholes, B. J. Stocks, A. M. Thompson, B. W. van Wilgen, and the STARE/TRACE-A/SAFARI Science Team, Biomass burning in the global environment: First results from the IGAC/BIBEX field campaign STARE/TRACE-A/SAFARI-92, in Global Atmospheric-Biospheric Chemistry, R. G. Prinn, Editor. 1994, Plenum, New York: p. 83-101.

Andreae, M. O. and P. Warneck, Global methane emissions from biomass burning and comparison with other sources. Pure and Applied Chemistry, 1994. 66: p. 162-169.

Goldammer, J. G., M. O. Andreae, G. Helas, and F. Meixner, Vegetationsbrände: Auswirkungen auf Ökosysteme, Atmosphäre und Klima. Labor 2000, 1994: p. 48-59.

Helas, G., J. Lobert, J. Goldammer, M. O. Andreae, J. P. Lacaux, and R. Delmas, Airborne measurements of biomass burning products over Africa, in Ozone in the Troposphere and Stratosphere. Proceedings of the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium 1992, R. D. Hudson, Editor. 1994, NASA, Greenbelt, Md: p. 162-165.

Manö, S. and M. O. Andreae, Emission of methyl bromide from biomass burning. Science, 1994. 263: p. 1255-1257.

Helas, G., M. O. Andreae, G. Schebeske, and P. Le Canut, SA’ARI-94: a preliminary view of results. S. Afr. J. Sci., 1995. 91: p. 360-362.

Helas, G., J. Lobert, D. Scharffe, L. Schäfer, J. Goldammer, J. Baudet, B. Ahoua, A.-L. Ajavon, J.-P. Lacaux, R. Delmas, and M. O. Andreae, Ozone production due to emissions from vegetation burning. J. Atmos. Chem., 1995. 22: p. 163-174.

Helas, G., J. Lobert, D. Scharffe, L. Schäfer, J. Goldammer, J. Baudet, A.-L. Ajavon, B. Ahoua, J.-P. Lacaux, R. Delmas, and M. O. Andreae, Airborne measurements of savanna fire emissions and the regional distribution of pyrogenic pollutants over western Africa. J. Atmos. Chem., 1995. 22: p. 217-239.

Lacaux, J. P., J. M. Brustet, R. Delmas, J. C. Menaut, L. Abbadie, B. Bonsang, H. Cachier, J. Baudet, M. O. Andreae, and G. Helas, Biomass burning in the tropical savannas of Ivory Coast: An overview of the field experiment Fire Of Savannas (FOS/DECAFE ’91). J. Atmos. Chem., 1995. 22: p. 195-216.

Andreae, M. O., E. Atlas, H. Cachier, W. R. Cofer, III, G. W. Harris, G. Helas, R. Koppmann, J.-P. Lacaux, and D. E. Ward, Trace gas and aerosol emissions from savanna fires, in Biomass Burning and Global Change, J. S. Levine, Editor. 1996, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.: p. 278-295.

Andreae, M. O., E. Atlas, G. W. Harris, G. Helas, A. de Kock, R. Koppmann, W. Maenhaut, S. Manö, W. H. Pollock, J. Rudolph, D. Scharffe, G. Schebeske, and M. Welling, Methyl halide emissions from savanna fires in southern Africa. J. Geophys. Res., 1996. 101: p. 23,603-23,613.

Andreae, M. O., J. Fishman, and J. Lindesay, The Southern Tropical Atlantic Region Experiment (STARE): TRansport and Atmospheric Chemistry near the Equator – Atlantic (TRACE-A) and Southern African Fire/Atmosphere Research Initiative (SAFARI): An introduction. J. Geophys. Res., 1996. 101: p. 23,519-23,520.

Kuhlbusch, T. A. J., M. O. Andreae, H. Cachier, J. G. Goldammer, J.-P. Lacaux, R. Shea, and P. J. Crutzen, Black carbon formation by savanna fires: Measurements and implications for the global carbon cycle. J. Geophys. Res., 1996. 101: p. 23,651-23,665.

Le Canut, P., M. O. Andreae, G. W. Harris, F. G. Wienhold, and T. Zenker, Aerosol optical properties over southern Africa during SAFARI-92, in Biomass Burning and Global Change, J. S. Levine, Editor. 1996, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.: p. 441-459.

Le Canut, P., M. O. Andreae, G. W. Harris, F. G. Wienhold, and T. Zenker, Airborne studies of emissions from savanna fires in southern Africa, 1, Aerosol emissions measured with a laser optical particle counter. J. Geophys. Res., 1996. 101: p. 23,615-23,630.

Lindesay, J. A., M. O. Andreae, J. G. Goldammer, G. Harris, H. J. Annegarn, M. Garstang, R. J. Scholes, and B. W. van Wilgen, International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme/International Global Atmospheric Chemistry SAFARI 92 field experiment: Background and overview. J. Geophys. Res., 1996. 101: p. 23,521-23,530.

Maenhaut, W., I. Salma, J. Cafmeyer, H. J. Annegarn, and M. O. Andreae, Regional atmospheric aerosol composition and sources in the Eastern Transvaal, South Africa, and impact of biomass burning. J. Geophys. Res., 1996. 101: p. 23,631-23,650.

Weiss, K.-F., J. G. Goldammer, J. S. Clark, D. A. Livingstone, and M. O. Andreae, Reconstruction of prehistoric fire regimes in East Africa by lake sediment analysis, in Biomass Burning and Global Change, J. S. Levine, Editor. 1996, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.: p. 545-551.

Zenker, T., A. M. Thompson, D. P. McNamara, T. L. Kuscera, G. W. Harris, F. G. Wienhold, P. Le Canut, M. O. Andreae, and R. Koppmann, Regional trace gas distribution and airmass characteristics in the haze layer over southern Africa during the biomass burning season (Sep./Oct. 92): Observations and modeling from the STARE/SAFARI’92/DC-3, in Biomass Burning and Global Change, J. S. Levine, Editor. 1996, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.: p. 296-308.

Andreae, M. O., Emissions of trace gases and aerosols from savanna fires, in Fire in the Southern African Savanna: Ecological and Environmental Perspectives, B. W. van Wilgen, M. O. Andreae, J. G. Goldammer, and J. A. Lindesay, Editor. 1997, Witwatersrand University Press, Johannesburg, South Africa: p. 161-183.

Andreae, M. O. and P. J. Crutzen, Atmospheric aerosols: Biogeochemical sources and role in atmospheric chemistry. Science, 1997. 276(5315): p. 1052-1056.

Helas, G., L. Marufu, J. Ludwig, J. G. Goldammer, and M. O. Andreae, Der Einfluß von Vegetationsfeuern und Biomasseverbrennung auf die Atmosphäre, in Stoffkreisläufe in natürlichen und industriellen Prozessen, G. Thews and C. Servatius, Editor. 1997, Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart: p. 33-46.

Koppmann, R., A. Khedim, J. Rudolph, D. Poppe, M. O. Andreae, G. Helas, M. Welling, and T. Zenker, Emissions of organic trace gases from savanna fires in southern Africa during the 1992 Southern African Fire Atmosphere Research Initiative and their impact on the formation of tropospheric ozone. J. Geophys. Res., 1997. 102(D15): p. 18,879-18,888.

Marufu, L., J. Ludwig, M. O. Andreae, F. X. Meixner, and G. Helas, Domestic biomass burning in rural and urban Zimbabwe – Part A. Biomass and Bioenergy, 1997. 12: p. 53-68.

van Wilgen, B. W., M. O. Andreae, J. G. Goldammer, and J. A. Lindesay, ed. Ecological and Atmospheric Effects of Savanna Fires in Southern Africa. 1997, University of Witwatersrand Press, Johannesburg, South Africa: 256 p.

Andreae, M. O., T. W. Andreae, H. Annegarn, F. Beer, H. Cachier, W. Elbert, G. W. Harris, W. Maenhaut, I. Salma, R. Swap, F. G. Wienhold, and T. Zenker, Airborne studies of aerosol emissions from savanna fires in southern Africa: 2. Aerosol chemical composition. J. Geophys. Res., 1998: in press.

Andreae, M. O., P. le Canut, T. W. Andreae, W. Elbert, G. W. Harris, F. G. Wienhold, T. Zenker, H. Annegarn, F. Beer, H. Cachier, W. Maenhaut, I. Salma, and R. Swap, Aerosol characteristics over southern Africa during the 1992 fire season. J. Geophys. Res., 1998: in preparation.

Harris, G. W., T. Zenker, M. O. Andreae, F. G. Wienhold, M. Welling, and U. Parchatka, Regional distribution of trace gases over southern Africa measured during SAFARI-92. J. Geophys. Res., 1998: in preparation.

Harris, G. W., T. Zenker, F. G. Wienhold, M. Welling, U. Parchatka, and M. O. Andreae, Airborne measurements of trace gas emission ratios from southern African veld fires. J. Geophys. Res., 1998: in preparation.

Helas, G., G. Schebeske, D. Scharffe, S. Manö, M. O. Andreae, and R. Koppmann, Light hydrocarbon measurements over savanna fires in South Africa. J. Geophys. Res., 1998: in preparation.

Kirkman, G. A., S. J. Piketh, G. Helas, H. J. Annegarn, and M. O. Andreae, Distribution of aerosols, ozone and carbon monoxide over southern Africa. 1998: in preparation.

Kituyi, E., L. Marufu, S. O. Wandiga, I. O. Jumba, M. O. Andreae, and G. Helas, Sustainability and species preference patterns of biofuel resources in Kenya. Ambio, 1998: in preparation.

Marufu, L., J. Ludwig, M. O. Andreae, J. Lelieveld, and G. Helas, Spatial and temporal variation in biofuel consumption rates and patterns in Zimbabwe: Implications for atmospheric trace gas emission. J. Biomass Bioenergy, 1998: submitted.

Scholes, M. and M. O. Andreae, Biogenic and pyrogenic emissions from Africa and their impact on the global atmosphere. 1998: in preparation.


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Publications relevant to fire and fire-related processes by M.O. Andreae

Publicationsrelevant to fire and fire-related processes
by M.O. Andreae


Andreae, M. O., E. V. Browell, M. Garstang, G. L. Gregory, R. C. Harriss, G. F. Hill, D. J. Jacob, M. C. Pereira, G. W. Sachse, A. W. Setzer, P. L. S. Dias, R. W. Talbot, A. L. Torres, et al., Biomass-burning emissions and associated haze layers over Amazonia. J. Geophys. Res., 1988. 93: p. 1509-1527.

Andreae, M. O. and D. S. Schimel, Exchange of Trace Gases between Terrestrial Ecosystems and the Atmosphere. 1989, Chichester, England, J. Wiley and Sons: 353.

Helas, G., M. O. Andreae, J. Fontan, B. Cros, and R. Delmas, Ozone measurements in equatorial Africa during DECAFE 88, in Ozone in the Atmosphere, R. D. Bojkov and P. Fabian, Editor. 1989, A. Deepak Publishing, Hampton, VA: p. 430-432.

Andreae, M. O., G. Helas, J. Rudolph, B. Cros, R. Delmas, D. Nganga, and J. Fontan, Ozone production from biomass burning in tropical Africa. Results from DECAFE-88, in Fire in the Tropical Biota: Ecosystem Processes and Global Challenges, J. G. Goldammer, Editor. 1990, Springer Verlag, Berlin, Germany: p. 437-439.

Crutzen, P. J. and M. O. Andreae, Biomass burning in the tropics: Impact on atmospheric chemistry and biogeochemical cycles. Science, 1990. 250: p. 1669-1678.

Andreae, M. O., Biomass burning: Its history, use and distribution and its impact on environmental quality and global climate, in Global Biomass Burning: Atmospheric, Climatic and Biospheric Implications, J. S. Levine, Editor. 1991, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.: p. 3-21.

Andreae, M. O., Biomass burning in the tropics: Impact on environmental quality and global climate, in Resources, Environment, and Population: Present Knowledge, Future Options, K. Davis and M. S. Bernstam, Editor. 1991, Oxford University Press, New York – Oxford: p. 268-291.

Lacaux, J. P., R. A. Delmas, B. Cros, B. Lefeivre, and M. O. Andreae, Influence of biomass burning emissions on precipitation chemistry in the equatorial forests of Africa, in Global Biomass Burning: Atmospheric, Climatic and Biospheric Implications, J. S. Levine, Editor. 1991, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.: p. 167-173.

Andreae, M. O., A. Chapuis, B. Cros, J. Fontan, G. Helas, C. Justice, Y. J. Kaufman, A. Minga, and D. Nganga, Ozone and Aitken nuclei over equatorial Africa: Airborne observations during DECAFE 88. J. Geophys. Res., 1992. 97: p. 6137-6148.

Andreae, M. O. and J. G. Goldammer, Tropical wildland fires and other biomass burning: Environmental impacts and implications for land use and fire management, in Conservation of West and Central African Rainforests, K. Cleaver, M. Munasinghe, M. Dyson, N. Egli, A. Peuker, and F. Wencelius, Editor. 1992, The World Bank, Washington, DC: p. 71-110.

Helas, G., H. Bingemer, and M. O. Andreae, Organic acids over equatorial Africa: Results from DECAFE 88. J. Geophys. Res., 1992. 97: p. 6187-6193.

Helas, G., J.-P. Lacaux, R. Delmas, D. Scharffe, J. Lobert, J. Goldammer, and M. O. Andreae, Ozone as biomass burning product over Africa. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 1992. 1: p. 155-160.

Andreae, M. O., The influence of tropical biomass burning on climate and the atmospheric environment, in Biogeochemistry of Global Change: Radiatively Active Trace Gases, R. S. Oremland, Editor. 1993, Chapman & Hall, New York, NY: p. 113-150.

Andreae, M. O., Global distribution of fires seen from space. Eos Trans. AGU, 1993. 74: p. 129-135.

Malingreau, J.-P., F. A. Albini, M. O. Andreae, S. Brown, J. S. Levine, J. M. Lobert, T. A. Kuhlbusch, L. Radke, A. W. Setzer, P. M. Vitousek, D. E. Ward, and J. Warnatz, Quantification of fire characteristics from local to global scales, in Fire in the Environment: The Ecological, Atmospheric, and Climatic Importance of Vegetation Fires, P. J. Crutzen and J. G. Goldammer, Editor. 1993, J. Wiley & Sons, Chichester, England: p. 329-343.

Andreae, M. O., B. E. Anderson, D. R. Blake, J. D. Bradshaw, J. E. Collins, G. L. Gregory, G. W. Sachse, and M. C. Shipham, Influence of plumes from biomass burning on atmospheric chemistry over the equatorial Atlantic during CITE-3. J. Geophys. Res., 1994. 99: p. 12,793-12,808.

Andreae, M. O., J. Fishman, M. Garstang, J. G. Goldammer, C. O. Justice, J. S. Levine, R. J. Scholes, B. J. Stocks, A. M. Thompson, B. W. van Wilgen, and the STARE/TRACE-A/SAFARI Science Team, Biomass burning in the global environment: First results from the IGAC/BIBEX field campaign STARE/TRACE-A/SAFARI-92, in Global Atmospheric-Biospheric Chemistry, R. G. Prinn, Editor. 1994, Plenum, New York: p. 83-101.

Andreae, M. O. and P. Warneck, Global methane emissions from biomass burning and comparison with other sources. Pure and Applied Chemistry, 1994. 66: p. 162-169.

Goldammer, J. G., M. O. Andreae, G. Helas, and F. Meixner, Vegetationsbrände: Auswirkungen auf Ökosysteme, Atmosphäre und Klima. Labor 2000, 1994: p. 48-59.

Helas, G., J. Lobert, J. Goldammer, M. O. Andreae, J. P. Lacaux, and R. Delmas, Airborne measurements of biomass burning products over Africa, in Ozone in the Troposphere and Stratosphere. Proceedings of the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium 1992, R. D. Hudson, Editor. 1994, NASA, Greenbelt, Md: p. 162-165.

Manö, S. and M. O. Andreae, Emission of methyl bromide from biomass burning. Science, 1994. 263: p. 1255-1257.

Helas, G., M. O. Andreae, G. Schebeske, and P. Le Canut, SA’ARI-94: a preliminary view of results. S. Afr. J. Sci., 1995. 91: p. 360-362.

Helas, G., J. Lobert, D. Scharffe, L. Schäfer, J. Goldammer, J. Baudet, B. Ahoua, A.-L. Ajavon, J.-P. Lacaux, R. Delmas, and M. O. Andreae, Ozone production due to emissions from vegetation burning. J. Atmos. Chem., 1995. 22: p. 163-174.

Helas, G., J. Lobert, D. Scharffe, L. Schäfer, J. Goldammer, J. Baudet, A.-L. Ajavon, B. Ahoua, J.-P. Lacaux, R. Delmas, and M. O. Andreae, Airborne measurements of savanna fire emissions and the regional distribution of pyrogenic pollutants over western Africa. J. Atmos. Chem., 1995. 22: p. 217-239.

Lacaux, J. P., J. M. Brustet, R. Delmas, J. C. Menaut, L. Abbadie, B. Bonsang, H. Cachier, J. Baudet, M. O. Andreae, and G. Helas, Biomass burning in the tropical savannas of Ivory Coast: An overview of the field experiment Fire Of Savannas (FOS/DECAFE ’91). J. Atmos. Chem., 1995. 22: p. 195-216.

Andreae, M. O., E. Atlas, H. Cachier, W. R. Cofer, III, G. W. Harris, G. Helas, R. Koppmann, J.-P. Lacaux, and D. E. Ward, Trace gas and aerosol emissions from savanna fires, in Biomass Burning and Global Change, J. S. Levine, Editor. 1996, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.: p. 278-295.

Andreae, M. O., E. Atlas, G. W. Harris, G. Helas, A. de Kock, R. Koppmann, W. Maenhaut, S. Manö, W. H. Pollock, J. Rudolph, D. Scharffe, G. Schebeske, and M. Welling, Methyl halide emissions from savanna fires in southern Africa. J. Geophys. Res., 1996. 101: p. 23,603-23,613.

Andreae, M. O., J. Fishman, and J. Lindesay, The Southern Tropical Atlantic Region Experiment (STARE): TRansport and Atmospheric Chemistry near the Equator – Atlantic (TRACE-A) and Southern African Fire/Atmosphere Research Initiative (SAFARI): An introduction. J. Geophys. Res., 1996. 101: p. 23,519-23,520.

Kuhlbusch, T. A. J., M. O. Andreae, H. Cachier, J. G. Goldammer, J.-P. Lacaux, R. Shea, and P. J. Crutzen, Black carbon formation by savanna fires: Measurements and implications for the global carbon cycle. J. Geophys. Res., 1996. 101: p. 23,651-23,665.

Le Canut, P., M. O. Andreae, G. W. Harris, F. G. Wienhold, and T. Zenker, Aerosol optical properties over southern Africa during SAFARI-92, in Biomass Burning and Global Change, J. S. Levine, Editor. 1996, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.: p. 441-459.

Le Canut, P., M. O. Andreae, G. W. Harris, F. G. Wienhold, and T. Zenker, Airborne studies of emissions from savanna fires in southern Africa, 1, Aerosol emissions measured with a laser optical particle counter. J. Geophys. Res., 1996. 101: p. 23,615-23,630.

Lindesay, J. A., M. O. Andreae, J. G. Goldammer, G. Harris, H. J. Annegarn, M. Garstang, R. J. Scholes, and B. W. van Wilgen, International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme/International Global Atmospheric Chemistry SAFARI 92 field experiment: Background and overview. J. Geophys. Res., 1996. 101: p. 23,521-23,530.

Maenhaut, W., I. Salma, J. Cafmeyer, H. J. Annegarn, and M. O. Andreae, Regional atmospheric aerosol composition and sources in the Eastern Transvaal, South Africa, and impact of biomass burning. J. Geophys. Res., 1996. 101: p. 23,631-23,650.

Weiss, K.-F., J. G. Goldammer, J. S. Clark, D. A. Livingstone, and M. O. Andreae, Reconstruction of prehistoric fire regimes in East Africa by lake sediment analysis, in Biomass Burning and Global Change, J. S. Levine, Editor. 1996, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.: p. 545-551.

Zenker, T., A. M. Thompson, D. P. McNamara, T. L. Kuscera, G. W. Harris, F. G. Wienhold, P. Le Canut, M. O. Andreae, and R. Koppmann, Regional trace gas distribution and airmass characteristics in the haze layer over southern Africa during the biomass burning season (Sep./Oct. 92): Observations and modeling from the STARE/SAFARI’92/DC-3, in Biomass Burning and Global Change, J. S. Levine, Editor. 1996, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.: p. 296-308.

Andreae, M. O., Emissions of trace gases and aerosols from savanna fires, in Fire in the Southern African Savanna: Ecological and Environmental Perspectives, B. W. van Wilgen, M. O. Andreae, J. G. Goldammer, and J. A. Lindesay, Editor. 1997, Witwatersrand University Press, Johannesburg, South Africa: p. 161-183.

Andreae, M. O. and P. J. Crutzen, Atmospheric aerosols: Biogeochemical sources and role in atmospheric chemistry. Science, 1997. 276(5315): p. 1052-1056.

Helas, G., L. Marufu, J. Ludwig, J. G. Goldammer, and M. O. Andreae, Der Einfluß von Vegetationsfeuern und Biomasseverbrennung auf die Atmosphäre, in Stoffkreisläufe in natürlichen und industriellen Prozessen, G. Thews and C. Servatius, Editor. 1997, Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart: p. 33-46.

Koppmann, R., A. Khedim, J. Rudolph, D. Poppe, M. O. Andreae, G. Helas, M. Welling, and T. Zenker, Emissions of organic trace gases from savanna fires in southern Africa during the 1992 Southern African Fire Atmosphere Research Initiative and their impact on the formation of tropospheric ozone. J. Geophys. Res., 1997. 102(D15): p. 18,879-18,888.

Marufu, L., J. Ludwig, M. O. Andreae, F. X. Meixner, and G. Helas, Domestic biomass burning in rural and urban Zimbabwe – Part A. Biomass and Bioenergy, 1997. 12: p. 53-68.

van Wilgen, B. W., M. O. Andreae, J. G. Goldammer, and J. A. Lindesay, ed. Ecological and Atmospheric Effects of Savanna Fires in Southern Africa. 1997, University of Witwatersrand Press, Johannesburg, South Africa: 256 p.

Andreae, M. O., T. W. Andreae, H. Annegarn, F. Beer, H. Cachier, W. Elbert, G. W. Harris, W. Maenhaut, I. Salma, R. Swap, F. G. Wienhold, and T. Zenker, Airborne studies of aerosol emissions from savanna fires in southern Africa: 2. Aerosol chemical composition. J. Geophys. Res., 1998: in press.

Andreae, M. O., P. le Canut, T. W. Andreae, W. Elbert, G. W. Harris, F. G. Wienhold, T. Zenker, H. Annegarn, F. Beer, H. Cachier, W. Maenhaut, I. Salma, and R. Swap, Aerosol characteristics over southern Africa during the 1992 fire season. J. Geophys. Res., 1998: in preparation.

Harris, G. W., T. Zenker, M. O. Andreae, F. G. Wienhold, M. Welling, and U. Parchatka, Regional distribution of trace gases over southern Africa measured during SAFARI-92. J. Geophys. Res., 1998: in preparation.

Harris, G. W., T. Zenker, F. G. Wienhold, M. Welling, U. Parchatka, and M. O. Andreae, Airborne measurements of trace gas emission ratios from southern African veld fires. J. Geophys. Res., 1998: in preparation.

Helas, G., G. Schebeske, D. Scharffe, S. Manö, M. O. Andreae, and R. Koppmann, Light hydrocarbon measurements over savanna fires in South Africa. J. Geophys. Res., 1998: in preparation.

Kirkman, G. A., S. J. Piketh, G. Helas, H. J. Annegarn, and M. O. Andreae, Distribution of aerosols, ozone and carbon monoxide over southern Africa. 1998: in preparation.

Kituyi, E., L. Marufu, S. O. Wandiga, I. O. Jumba, M. O. Andreae, and G. Helas, Sustainability and species preference patterns of biofuel resources in Kenya. Ambio, 1998: in preparation.

Marufu, L., J. Ludwig, M. O. Andreae, J. Lelieveld, and G. Helas, Spatial and temporal variation in biofuel consumption rates and patterns in Zimbabwe: Implications for atmospheric trace gas emission. J. Biomass Bioenergy, 1998: submitted.

Scholes, M. and M. O. Andreae, Biogenic and pyrogenic emissions from Africa and their impact on the global atmosphere. 1998: in preparation.


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Paul J. Crutzen

Fire Ecology Research Group, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry


Between 1980 and 2001 Paul J. Crutzen was Director of the Atmospheric Chemistry Department, Max-Planck-Institute for Chemistry. As a trained meteorologist (University of Stockholm, Sweden) P.J. Crutzen held research and director positions in various institutes, among other at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Boulder, Colorado, USA. Since 1980 he is Director of the Atmospheric Chemistry Department. His main scientific interest is in the role of atmospheric chemistry in climate and biogeochemical cycles. He served as Vice-Chairman of the International Steering Committee of the IGAC (International Global Atmospheric Chemistry) Core Project of IGBP (1990-1996) and Chairman of the European IGAC Project Office (1992-1996). Currently he is Vice-Chairman of the Scientific Committee for the International Geosphere-Biosphere Project (SC-IGBP). Among several awards he received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1995 (with Dr. M. Molina and Dr. F.S. Rowland, U.S.A.). P.J. Crutzen´s Department has participated in a series of fire research campaigns.

Publications relevant to fire and fire-related processes


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GFMC: Fire Ecology Research Group, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry Paul J. Crutzen

Paul J. Crutzen


Between 1980 and 2001 Paul J. Crutzen was Director of the Atmospheric Chemistry Department, Max-Planck-Institute for Chemistry. As a trained meteorologist (University of Stockholm, Sweden) P.J. Crutzen held research and director positions in various institutes, among other at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Boulder, Colorado, USA. Since 1980 he is Director of the Atmospheric Chemistry Department. His main scientific interest is in the role of atmospheric chemistry in climate and biogeochemical cycles. He served as Vice-Chairman of the International Steering Committee of the IGAC (International Global Atmospheric Chemistry) Core Project of IGBP (1990-1996) and Chairman of the European IGAC Project Office (1992-1996). Currently he is Vice-Chairman of the Scientific Committee for the International Geosphere-Biosphere Project (SC-IGBP). Among several awards he received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1995 (with Dr. M. Molina and Dr. F.S. Rowland, U.S.A.). P.J. Crutzen´s Department has participated in a series of fire research campaigns.

 

Publications relevant to fire and fire-related processes

 

 


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Publications by P.J. Crutzen

Publications relevant to fire and fire-related processes

Last Update: October 1998


Books

Pittock, A.B., T.P. Ackerman, P.J. Crutzen, M.C. MacCracken, C.S. Shapiro and R.P. Turco, 1986: Environmental Consequences of Nuclear War, SCOPE 28, Volume I: Physical and Atmospheric Effects, Wiley, Chichester, 359 pp; 2nd edition 1989.

Enquete Commission “Preventive Measures to Protect the Earth’s Atmosphere”, 1989: Interim Report: Protecting the Earth’s atmosphere: an International Challenge. Ed. Deutscher Bundestag, Referat Öffentlichkeitsarbeit, Bonn, 592 pp.

Enquete Commission “Preventive Measures to Protect the Earth’s Atmosphere”, 1990: Protecting the Tropical Forests: A High-Priority International Task. Ed. Deutscher Bundestag, Referat Öffentlichkeitsarbeit, Bonn, 968 pp.

Enquete Commission “Preventive Measures to Protect the Earth’s Atmosphere”, 1991: Protecting the Earth: A Status Report with Recommendations for a new Energy Policy. Ed. Deutscher Bundestag, Referat Öffentlichkeitsarbeit, Bonn, 2 Volumes.

Crutzen, P.J. and J.G. Goldammer, 1993: Fire in the Environment: The Ecological, Atmospheric, and Climatic Importance of Vegetation Fires. Dahlem Konferenz (15-20 March 1992, Berlin), ES13, Wiley, Chichester, 400 pp.

Graedel, T.E. and P.J. Crutzen, 1995: Atmosphere, Climate, and Change. W.H. Freeman, New York, 208 pp.

 

Journals (refereed):

Seiler, W. and P.J. Crutzen, 1980: Estimates of gross and net fluxes of carbon between the biosphere and the atmosphere from biomass burning. Climatic Change, 2, 207-247

Crutzen, P.J. and J.W. Birks, 1982: The atmosphere after a nuclear war: Twilight at Noon. Ambio, 2&3, 114-125.

Crutzen, P.J., I.E. Galbally and C. Bruhl, 1984: Atmospheric Effects from Postnuclear fires. Climatic Change, 6, 323-364.

Crutzen, P.J., M.T. Coffey, A.C. Delany, J. Greenberg, P. Haagenson, L. Heidt, R. Heidt, L. Lueb, W.G. Mankin, W. Pollock, W. Seiler, A. Wartburg and P. Zimmerman, 1985: Observations of air composition in Brazil between the equator and 20° S during the dry season. Acta Amazonica, Manaus, 15(1-2): 77-119.

Crutzen, P.J., A.C. Delany, J. Greenberg, P. Haagenson, L. Heidt, R. Lueb, W. Pollock, W. Seiler, A. Wartburg and P. Zimmerman, 1985: Tropospheric Chemical Composition Measurements in Brazil During the Dry Season. J. Atmos. Chem., 2, 233-256.

Delany, A.C., P. Haagenson, S. Walters, A.F. Wartburg and P.J. Crutzen, 1985: Photochemically produced ozone in the emission of large scale tropical vegetation fires. J. Geophys. Res., 90 (D1), 2425-2429.

Crutzen, P.J. and M.O. Andreae, 1990: Biomass burning in the tropics: impact on atmospheric chemistry and biogeochemical cycles. Science, 250, 1669-1678.

Hao, W.M., M.H. Liu and P.J. Crutzen, 1990: Estimates of annual and regional releases of CO2 and other trace gases to the atmosphere from fires in the tropics, based on the FAO statistics for the period 1975-1980, in: Fire in the Tropical Biota, Ecological Studies, 84, J.G. Goldammer, Ed., Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 440-462 .

Lobert, J.M., D.H. Scharffe, W.M. Hao and P.J. Crutzen, 1990: Importance of biomass burning in the atmospheric budgets of nitrogen-containing gases. Nature, 346, 552-554.

Hao, W.M., D. Scharffe, J.M. Lobert and P.J. Crutzen, 1991: Emissions of N2O from the burning of biomass in an experimental system. Geophys. Res. Lett., 18, 999-1002.

Kanakidou, M., H.B. Singh, K.M. Valentin and P.J. Crutzen, 1991: A 2-D study of ethane and propane oxidation in the troposphere. J. Geophys. Res., 96, 15395-15413.

Kuhlbusch, A.T., J.M. Lobert, P.J. Crutzen and P. Warneck, 1991: Molecular nitrogen emissions from denitrification during biomass burning. Nature, 351, 135-137.

Lobert, J.M., D.H. Scharffe, W.M. Hao, T.A. Kuhlbusch, R. Seuwen, P. Warneck and P.J. Crutzen, 1991: Experimental evaluation of biomass burning emissions: Nitrogen and carbon containing compounds, in: Global Biomass Burning: Atmospheric, Climatic and Biosphere Implications, Ed. J.S. Levine, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, pp. 122-125.

Crutzen, P.J. and G.R. Carmichael, 1993: Modeling the influence of fires on atmospheric chemistry, in: Fire in the Environment: The Ecological, Atmospheric, and Climatic Importance of Vegetation Fires, (P.J. Crutzen and J.G. Goldammer, Eds.), op. cit., 90-105.

Goldammer, J.G and P.J. Crutzen, 1993: Fire in the Environment: Scientific Rationale and Summary of Results of the Dahlem Workshop, in: Fire in the Environment: The Ecological, Atmospheric and Climatic Importance, (P.J. Crutzen and J.G. Goldammer, Eds.), op. cit., 1-14.

Kuhlbusch, T.A.J. and P.J. Crutzen, 1995: Toward a global estimate of black carbon in residues of vegetation fires representing a sink of atmospheric CO2 and a source of O2. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 4, 491-501.

Kuhlbusch, T.A.J., M.O. Andreae, H. Cachier, J.G. Goldammer, J.-P. Lacaux, R. Shea and P.J. Crutzen, 1996: Black carbon formation by savannah fires: Measurements and implications for the global carbeon cycle. J. Geophys. Res., 101, 23651-23665.


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Publications relevant to fire and fire-related processes by P.J. Crutzen

Publications relevant to fire andfire-related processes
by P.J. Crutzen

Last Update: October 1998


Books

Pittock, A.B., T.P. Ackerman, P.J. Crutzen, M.C. MacCracken, C.S. Shapiro and R.P. Turco, 1986: Environmental Consequences of Nuclear War, SCOPE 28, Volume I: Physical and Atmospheric Effects, Wiley, Chichester, 359 pp; 2nd edition 1989.

Enquete Commission “Preventive Measures to Protect the Earth’s Atmosphere”, 1989: Interim Report: Protecting the Earth’s atmosphere: an International Challenge. Ed. Deutscher Bundestag, Referat Öffentlichkeitsarbeit, Bonn, 592 pp.

Enquete Commission “Preventive Measures to Protect the Earth’s Atmosphere”, 1990: Protecting the Tropical Forests: A High-Priority International Task. Ed. Deutscher Bundestag, Referat Öffentlichkeitsarbeit, Bonn, 968 pp.

Enquete Commission “Preventive Measures to Protect the Earth’s Atmosphere”, 1991: Protecting the Earth: A Status Report with Recommendations for a new Energy Policy. Ed. Deutscher Bundestag, Referat Öffentlichkeitsarbeit, Bonn, 2 Volumes.

Crutzen, P.J. and J.G. Goldammer, 1993: Fire in the Environment: The Ecological, Atmospheric, and Climatic Importance of Vegetation Fires. Dahlem Konferenz (15-20 March 1992, Berlin), ES13, Wiley, Chichester, 400 pp.

Graedel, T.E. and P.J. Crutzen, 1995: Atmosphere, Climate, and Change. W.H. Freeman, New York, 208 pp.

 

Journals (refereed):

Seiler, W. and P.J. Crutzen, 1980: Estimates of gross and net fluxes of carbon between the biosphere and the atmosphere from biomass burning. Climatic Change, 2, 207-247

Crutzen, P.J. and J.W. Birks, 1982: The atmosphere after a nuclear war: Twilight at Noon. Ambio, 2&3, 114-125.

Crutzen, P.J., I.E. Galbally and C. Bruhl, 1984: Atmospheric Effects from Postnuclear fires. Climatic Change, 6, 323-364.

Crutzen, P.J., M.T. Coffey, A.C. Delany, J. Greenberg, P. Haagenson, L. Heidt, R. Heidt, L. Lueb, W.G. Mankin, W. Pollock, W. Seiler, A. Wartburg and P. Zimmerman, 1985: Observations of air composition in Brazil between the equator and 20° S during the dry season. Acta Amazonica, Manaus, 15(1-2): 77-119.

Crutzen, P.J., A.C. Delany, J. Greenberg, P. Haagenson, L. Heidt, R. Lueb, W. Pollock, W. Seiler, A. Wartburg and P. Zimmerman, 1985: Tropospheric Chemical Composition Measurements in Brazil During the Dry Season. J. Atmos. Chem., 2, 233-256.

Delany, A.C., P. Haagenson, S. Walters, A.F. Wartburg and P.J. Crutzen, 1985: Photochemically produced ozone in the emission of large scale tropical vegetation fires. J. Geophys. Res., 90 (D1), 2425-2429.

Crutzen, P.J. and M.O. Andreae, 1990: Biomass burning in the tropics: impact on atmospheric chemistry and biogeochemical cycles. Science, 250, 1669-1678.

Hao, W.M., M.H. Liu and P.J. Crutzen, 1990: Estimates of annual and regional releases of CO2 and other trace gases to the atmosphere from fires in the tropics, based on the FAO statistics for the period 1975-1980, in: Fire in the Tropical Biota, Ecological Studies, 84, J.G. Goldammer, Ed., Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 440-462 .

Lobert, J.M., D.H. Scharffe, W.M. Hao and P.J. Crutzen, 1990: Importance of biomass burning in the atmospheric budgets of nitrogen-containing gases. Nature, 346, 552-554.

Hao, W.M., D. Scharffe, J.M. Lobert and P.J. Crutzen, 1991: Emissions of N2O from the burning of biomass in an experimental system. Geophys. Res. Lett., 18, 999-1002.

Kanakidou, M., H.B. Singh, K.M. Valentin and P.J. Crutzen, 1991: A 2-D study of ethane and propane oxidation in the troposphere. J. Geophys. Res., 96, 15395-15413.

Kuhlbusch, A.T., J.M. Lobert, P.J. Crutzen and P. Warneck, 1991: Molecular nitrogen emissions from denitrification during biomass burning. Nature, 351, 135-137.

Lobert, J.M., D.H. Scharffe, W.M. Hao, T.A. Kuhlbusch, R. Seuwen, P. Warneck and P.J. Crutzen, 1991: Experimental evaluation of biomass burning emissions: Nitrogen and carbon containing compounds, in: Global Biomass Burning: Atmospheric, Climatic and Biosphere Implications, Ed. J.S. Levine, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, pp. 122-125.

Crutzen, P.J. and G.R. Carmichael, 1993: Modeling the influence of fires on atmospheric chemistry, in: Fire in the Environment: The Ecological, Atmospheric, and Climatic Importance of Vegetation Fires, (P.J. Crutzen and J.G. Goldammer, Eds.), op. cit., 90-105.

Goldammer, J.G and P.J. Crutzen, 1993: Fire in the Environment: Scientific Rationale and Summary of Results of the Dahlem Workshop, in: Fire in the Environment: The Ecological, Atmospheric and Climatic Importance, (P.J. Crutzen and J.G. Goldammer, Eds.), op. cit., 1-14.

Kuhlbusch, T.A.J. and P.J. Crutzen, 1995: Toward a global estimate of black carbon in residues of vegetation fires representing a sink of atmospheric CO2 and a source of O2. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 4, 491-501.

Kuhlbusch, T.A.J., M.O. Andreae, H. Cachier, J.G. Goldammer, J.-P. Lacaux, R. Shea and P.J. Crutzen, 1996: Black carbon formation by savannah fires: Measurements and implications for the global carbeon cycle. J. Geophys. Res., 101, 23651-23665.


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